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in Africa-Capitulation of A. Albinus—Indignation at Rome-Prosecutions of the Optimates-Metellus sent to Afriea, with Marius as legate-Overtures of Jugurtha- Battle of the river Muthul-Successes of Metellus-He is repulsed from Zama--Conspiracy of Bomilcar-Rise of Caius Marius-His marriage with Julia— The soothsayer at Utica-Marius aspires to the consulship-Scorn of Metellus- Election of Marius-Metellus takes ThalaBocchus and Jugurtha-Negotiations with Metellus-Marius arrives in Africa -His first campaign-Taking of Capsa-Expedition to the Molochath- The last battle of Jugurtha--Treachery of king Bocchus-Mission of Sulla and capture of Jugurtha—Triumph of Marius-His jealousy of Sulla--The coming conflict-The Cimbri and Teutones-Defeats of Carbo, Silanus, Longinus, and of Mallius and Cæpio-Successive consulships of Marius-His victory over the Teutones at Aix-Victory over the Cimbri-Condition of Rome and Italy-Insurrections of slaves-Sufferings of the provinces-Piracy-Second Servile War in Sicily-Sixth consulship of Marius-Births of Cicero, Pompey, and Cæsar.


CHAPTER XXXIII. FIRST PERIOD OF CIVIL WARS.- MARIUS AND SULLA--B.C. 100 TO B.C. 78. Marius is honoured as a second Camillus-His defeets-He creates a standing

army-His league with Glaucia and Saturninus-- The Appuleian laws,Banishment of Metellus-Sedition and death of Saturninus—Triumph of the Optimates—Retirement of Marius-Foreign affairs : Spain and Cyrene--Lex Cæcilia-Judicial abuses by the Equites—Q. Scævola in Asia-Condemnation of Rutilius Rufus- Prosecution of Scaurus–Tribunate of M. Livius Drusus -His measures of reform-Their passage and repeal— Assassination of Drusus-Revolt of the Allies The Social or Marsic War-The Italian confederation, and its new capital - The States faithful to Rome–The two scenes of the war-Successes of the insurgents in Campania-L. Julius Cæsar -Defeat and death of Rutilius Lupus-Successes of Marius, Sulla, and Pompeius Strabo- The Romans grant the citizenship to the Allies - The Lex Julia and Lex Plautia Papiria- The franchise in Cisalpine Gaul--Second year of the war-Successes of Pompeius Strabo and Sulla-Resistance of the Sam. nites-War with Mithridates—Consulship of Sulla— Jealousy of Marius-Tribunate and laws of Sulpicius Rufus-Marius appointed to the command against Mithridates-Sulla marches upon Rome-Flight and adventures of Marius-Proceedings of Sulla-Cinna elected consul-Sulla departs for Asia -Attempt at a counter-revolution-Cinna driven out of Rome, He collects an army- Return of Marius to Italy-Siege and capitulation of RomeMassacre of the Optimates-Seventh consulship of Marius—The first Mithridatic War-Character of Mithridates VI. - Affairs of Cappadocia and Bithynia-Invasion of Asia, and massacre of the Italians- Insurrection of Greece—Sulla lands in Epirus, takes Athens, and defeats ArchelausPeace with Mithridates, The Civil War extends to Asia-Deaths of Flaccus and Fimbria-Sulla returns to Italy--Government and death of Cinna-Preparations for war-Sulla defeats Norbanus—Is joined by Pompey and other leaders of the Optimates-Marius the younger and Papirius Carbo--Defeat of Marius-Massacre at Rome-Sulla defeats the Samnites before the Colline Gate-Death of Marius-Autocracy of Sulla—The first great proscriptionTriumph-Dictatorship, and legislation of Sulla–His retirement, death, and funeral



First TRIUMVIRATE.-B.C. 78 TO B.C. 60. Instability of the Sullan restoration—The opposition party-Its want of leaders

Revolutionary attempt of the consul Lepidus-His defeat and deathQuintus Sertorius holds out in Spain-Metellus Pius opposed to himPompey associated with Metellus- İlis defeats, Decline of the influence of Sertorius-His murder by Perperna-Defeat and execution of PerpernaOutbreak of Spartacus and the Gladiators-They overrun Italy-Crassus defeats and kills Spartacus-- Pompey claims a share in the victory-Consul



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ship of Pompey and Crassus-Reversal of Sulla's acts – Restoration of the
tribuneship and reform of the jury lists-Rise of Caius Julius Cæsar-His
resistance to Sulla-He serves in Asia-Prosecution of Dolabella-Cæsar
again leaves Rome-Adventure with the Pirates-He studies rhetoric at
Rhodes--Supports Pompey-Restores the images of Marius-Rise of Marcus
Tullius Cicero-His family and education–His one campaign-Speeches for
Quin tius and Roscius-He withdraws to Athens-His friendship with Atticus
-He studies in Asia and at Rhodes-Returns to Rome and devotes hiinself
to pleading causes-His quæstorship in Sicily-Prosecution of Verres-
Rivalry with Hortensius and triumph of Cicero-Dedication of the Capitol
- The Equestrian order—The war with the Pirates—Command conferred on
Pom pey by the Gabinian law–His brilliant success,Second Mithridatic
War, and restoration of peace—Vast preparations of Mithridates—The
death of Nicomedes III. brings on the third Mithridatic war-Mith-
ridates defeats Cotta and besieges Cyzicus-Lucullus raises the sieye,
and defeats Mithridates in Pontus-Mithridates flies to Armenia - History
of the country—The kingdom of Tigranes-Lucullus settles the affairs
of Asia-He defeats Tigranes, takes Tigranocerta, and besieges Nisibis
-Irruption of Mithridates into Pontus-Roman disasters-Mutiny in the
army of Lucullus-Glabrio sent to supersede him-Pompey made general-
issimo in the East-Cicero prætor, His for the Manilian law-Retire-
ment of Lucullus–Pompey advances into Pontus-Flight of Mithridates to
Bosporus - Pompey in Armenia - Submission of Tigranes- Pompey in the
Caucasian lands-He marches into Syria –Death of Mithridates - Review
of Syrian history-Syria made a Roman province - The kingdoms of Com-
magene and Edessa – Damascus and Arabia-Phænicia and Cæle-Syria-
Palestine-REVIEW OF JEWISH HISTORY-Religious and moral state of the
restored people-Hostility of the Samaritans—Their origin -Schismatic
temple on Mount Gerizim-Hatred of the Jews and Samaritans, Bloodshed
in the Jewish temple—Jaddua and Alexander the Great-Judæa under the
Ptolemies-Simon the Just and Eleazar–The Septuagint version-Onias II.
and Joseph the son of Tobias-Ptolemy Philopator at Jerusalem-Hyrcanus
the son of Joseph-Palestine under Antiochus the Great-Story of Heliodorus
-Reign of Antiochus Epiphanes-Hellenism in Judæa-Jason and Mene-
laus-Murder of Onias III.-Sack of Jerusalem by Antiochus- Massacre by
Apollonius-Great persecution under Athenæus–Martyrdom of Eleazar —
Revolt of Mattathias-Judas Maccabæus-His victories, dedication of the
temple, treaty with Rome, and death-Jonathan Apphus secures peace-
His murder by Tryphon-Prosperous government of Simon Thassi – His
murder-John "Hyrcanus I. - Independence and extension of Judæa-De-
struction of the temple on Gerizim and of Samaria-Quarrel with the Phari-

-Reign of Aristobulus I.-Alexander Jannæus-War with Ptolemy Lathyrus-Rebellion of the Pharisees — Their ascendancy under Alexandra-Aristobulas II. and Hyrcanus II.— Rise of Antipater-Civil War-Interference of the Romans – Pompey takes Jerusalem and profanes the temple-Its subsequent plunder by Crassus-Hyrcanus II. and Antipater-Escape and rebellions of Aristobulus and his sons-Deaths of Aristobulus and Alexander Murder of Antipater-Hyrcanus in the hands of Herod-The Parthians restore Antigonus-Herod at Rome-Returns as king of Judæa-Capture of Jerusalem-End of the Asmonæan dynasty-Accession of Herod the GreatDeaths of Antigonus, Aristobulus, and Hyrcanus–Events at Rome during Pompey's absence-Consulship of Cicero and conspiracy of Catiline-Pompey returns to Rome His political attitude and his triumph-State of parties Trial of Clodius-Opposition of the Senate to Pompey-Cæsar in Spain His return to Rome-The first triumvirate




Origin of the Civil War from the Consulship of Metellus-Its causes and

character-First Consulship of Cæsar—Measures of the Triumvirs – Procon


sulate of Cæsar - Position of Cicero-Clodius elected Tribune-Cicero's banishment and recal-Clodius quarrels with Pompey-Riots of Milo and Clodius-Meeting of the Triumvirs at Lucca-Partition of the Provinces -Second Consulship of Pompey and Crassus-Dedication of Pompey's Theatre-Pompey remains at Rome-Crassus departs for Syria—Omens of disaster-He crosses the Euphrates and retires - Embassy from the Parthians—Crassus enters Mesopotamia— Tactics of the Parthians—The battle of Charræ--Death of the younger Crassus-Retreat to Charræ- Death of Crassus-Sequel of the Parthian war- -Anarchy at Rome-Murder of Clodins-Pompey sole Consul - Trial of Milo : Speech of Cicero-Pompey joins the Optimates, and aims to strengthen himself against CæsarProrogation of his command-Cæsar's Gallic War-First Campaign : The Helvetii and Germans-Second campaign : the Belgic tribes—Third campaign : the Armoric nations-Fourth campaign : Cæsar crosses the Rhine, and invades Britain-Fifth campaign : second invasion of Britain : attacks on the winter quarters of the Romans-Sixth campaign : second passage of the Rhine-Seventh campaign : revolt of Gaul under Vercingetorix : Siege and capture of Alesia- Eighth campaign : complete subjection of Gaul-Cæsar in Cisalpine Gaul-- Cicero's proconsulate in Cilicia- Measures of the Senate against Cæsar-He is declared a public enemy-Antony and Cassius fly to Cæsar's camp-Cæsar crosses the Rubicon - The great Civil War begins-Flight of the Pompeians to Brundisium and Greece Cæsar master of Italy—War in Spain : Defeat of Afranius and PetreiusCapture of Massilia-Cæsar dictator for eleven days—Cæsar in Greece: battle of Pharsalia-Flight of Pompey to Egypt-His death-Cæsar in Egypt-Cleopatra—The Alexandrine war-Cæsar in Pontus : Veni, vidi, Vici-His return to Rome-Pardon of Cicero-African war : battle of Thapsus : siege of Utica : death of Cato—Triumph of Cæsar – Reformation of the Calendar-Insurrection in Spain-Cæsar defeats the Pompeians at Munda--His return to Rome as master of the empire-Dictatorship for life, and other honours - His gigantic projects – The Conspiracy against his life-Character of Brutus—The Ides of March-Character of Cæsar-His admirers and imitators.


DEATH OF CÆSAR TO THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM-B.C. 44 to B.C. 31. Sequel of Cæsar's death-The conspirators and the people—The corpse of

Cæsar—Proceedings of Antony-Decision of the Senate-Hollow reconciliation-Cæsar's acts are confirmed and the provinces allotted - Cæsar's testament-Funeral oration of Mark Antony-Fury of the people-Government of Antony-His use of Cæsar's papers – Octavius at Apollonia-His decision on hearing of Cæsar's death-M. Vipsanius Agrippa-Octavius returns to Italy-Claims his inheritance as C. Julius Cæsar OctavianusHis interview with Cicero-He arrives at Roine-Omens of his greatness

- He courts the Senate and people--His interview with Antony-Octavian discharges Cæsar's bequests-His popularity-Apotheosis of Julius -The Provinces Cicero's Philippics' - Antony leaves Rome–War of Mutina-Defeat of Antony, Octavian breaks with the Senate, returns to Rome, and becomes Consul-His coalition with Antony and LepidusSecond Triumvirate-Proscription -Murder of Cicero-Successes of Sextus Pompeius—The Republicans in the East - Battles of Philippi-Deaths of Brutus and Cassius-Partition of the Provinces-Antony and CleopatraConfusion in Italy-War of Perusia—The Parthians in Syria-Antony and Sextus before Brundisium - Reconciliation of the Triumvirs – Peace with Sextus Pompey at Misenum- Ventidius defeats the Parthians, New war with Sextus, and defeat of Octavian-Second reconciliation of Octavian and Antony-Treaty of Tarentum-Agrippa's victory over Sextus Pompey—Deposition of Lepidus-Death of Sextus-- Extinction of the Senatorial party -- Honours heaped upon Octavian--Agrippa and Mæcenas -Antony and Cleopatra in the East- Antony's defeat in Parthia-His Armenian campaign and triumph at Alexandria-Roman provinces given to Cleopatra- The Egyptian Court-Octavian's successful wars in the Alps-His growing popularity-Final breach with Antony-War declared


against Egypt-Battle of Actium— Flight of Cleopatra and Antony -Octavian lands in Egypt-Deaths of Antony, Cleopatra, and Cæsarion -Egypt made a Roman province - Return and triumph of OctavianEpoch of the empire






B.C. 29 to A.D. 14.
Octavian the sole ruler of the Roman world - Imperator and Censor for life-

Census of the empire—The dignity of Princeps-He accepts the Imperium for ten years—The provinces of Cæsar, and of the Senate and people-The title of Augustus- The name of Cæsar-Augustus goes to Spain–His dangerous illnesses-Question of a successor-He receives the perpetual tribunitian and consular powers-His legislative and judicial functions—The Emperor not above the laws-The popular assemblies State of the Roman people - The Senate and the Equites—The Imperial consuls, prætors, ædiles, and quæstors—The prefect of the city-Government of the provinces-Military organization—The Prætorian cohorts and Urban guards—The Legions-The teet-Finances of the empire-Summary of the Imperial system- The family of Augustus-Livia and her stepsons-Octavia and Marcellus – Death of Marcellus–Marriage of Julia to Agrippa--Caius and Lucius Cæsar, and Agrippa Postumus— Descendants of Octavia and Antony--Genealogy of the Six Cæsars"-Augustus in the East-- The standards of Crassus recovered—The great Secular gamesAgrippa goes to the East-Augustus in Gaul-Description of the Danubian regions, Vindelicia and Rhætia conquered by Tiberius and Drusus-Consulship of Tiberius-Augustus Pontifex Maximus-Death of Agrippa – Marriage of Tiberius to Julia-Drusus in Gaul-Account of the Germans and their land—The four campaigns of Drusus in Germany–His death and funeral–Conquest of Mesia— Tiberius in Germany–His retirement to Rhodes- Banishment of Julia-Advancement and deaths of Caius and Lucius Cæsar-Adoption of Tiberius-His campaigns in Germany and Illyricum-Intrigues against Augustus— Exile of Ovid—Catastrophe of Varus—Tiberius and Germanicus in Germany-Last days and death of Augustus


A.D. 14 to A.D. 96. Tacitus and the history of the Cæsars-Accession, character, and first acts of

Tiberius-Oath of allegiance taken by the Senate-Testament, funeral and apotheosis of Augustus-Scene between Tiberius and the Senate-Asinius Gallus-Election of inagistrates transferred from the Comitia to the Senate -Mutinies of the legions in Pannonia and on the Rhine---Noble conduct of Germanicus-His campaigns in Germany-Burial of the remains of the legions of Varus-Retreat of Cæcina and Germanicus-Arminius and his brother-Victory of the Romans-Their final retreat beyond the Rhine -Recal of Germanicus–Drusus in Illyricum-War between the Cherusci and Marcomanni, Fate of Maroboduus and Arminius-Arminius worshipped as a hero-Germanicus in the East-Intrigues of Piso and Plancina–Death of Germanicus-Trial and death of Piso— Tacfarinas in Africa, and other wars-Government of Tiberius-Law of treason, informers and executions - Various internal measures-Earlier promise of Tiberins—Marked change in his character Rise and influence of Sejanus — Drusus designated


as heir, and murdered by Sejanus — The Prætorian camp formed at Rome-New victims of the informers—Tiberius quarrels with Agrippina - Withdraws to Capree-His occupations and alleged orgies — Death of Livia — Condemnation of Agrippina and her sons–Elevation and fall of Sejanus—Starvation of Drusus and Agrippina-Death of Tiberius -Accession of Caius Cæsar (Caligula)—His tyranny, madness, and death -Reign of Claudius-Mauretania and Britain-Seneca—Reign of Nero-His character, tyranny and death-The Jewish war-Galba, Otho, and Vitellius–Victory of Vespasian- The Flavian dynasty-Capture of Jerusalem -Civilis and the Batavians-Affairs of the East-Reign of TitusEruption of Vesuvius — Fire at Rome - The Colosseum-Reign and tyranny of Domitian-Dacian and Sarmatian wars-Campaigns of Agricola in Britain-Persecution of the Christians-Death of Domitian



A.D. 96 TO A.D. 192.
The new empire has a constitutional character-Happiness of the new era –

Union of monarchy and liberty-Accession of Nerva–His character and origin-Clemency and government of Nerva-Discontent of the Prætorians -Nerva adopts Trajan–His death-Accession of Trajan–His extraction and character-His settlement of the German frontier-His entry into Rome–His magnanimity and firmness—Title of "Optimus"-First Dacian war, and submission of Decebalus-Second Dacian war– Trajan's bridge over the Danube-Death of Decebalus and conquest of Dacia- The forum and column of Trajan-Dacia a Roman province-Conquests in ArabiaGovernment of Trajan-Dignity and freedom of the Senate-Condition of the people—Trajan's economy and magnificence-Natural disasters at Rome-Parthian aggressions in Armenia – Trajan goes to the East-Earthquake at Antioch-Conquest of Armenia and Assyria-Capture of Ctesiphon – Trajan on the Persian gulf-His retreat to Antioch, and death in Cilicia- Epoch from which the empire began to recede - Accession and origin of Hadrian-His education and early career--His alleged adoption by Trajan-His system of policy—The conquests of Trajan abandonedHadrian's return to Rome-Dangers of the frontiers-Hadrian in Mesia -His first progress : Gaul: the Rhine : Britain : the “Vallum Romanum": Mauretania : Asia : Athens : Sicily : Rome : Carthage--Hadrian's second progress-His residence at Athens, and buildings there-Hadrian at Alexandria and Antioch-His works at Rome-The “Edictum Perpetuum — Adoption and death of Ceionius Commodus Verus-Aurelius Antoninus is adopted by Hadrian, and himself adopts M. Annius Verus and L. Aurelius Verus-Death and character of Hadrian-Great merits of his government-Accession of Antoninus Pius-His origin and family-Association of M. Aurelius in the empire-Character of the two Antonines—The basis of their power was not despotic-State of the frontiers—The “Vallum Antonini” in Britain-Excesses of Faustina-Happy life and death of Antoninus-Accession of Marcus Aurelius, the Philosopher- His “Meditations”-His association of Lucius Verus in the empire—The Parthian war - Victories of Avidius Cassius-Government of Aurelius-The barbarians on the Danube-Pestilence brought from the East-The Emperors at Aquileia-Death of Verus-War upon the Danube, Victory over the Quadi—The Thundering Legion-Vices of Commodus and Faustina-Rebellion and death of Avidius Cassius-Aurelius at Antioch, Alexandria, and Athens-His triumph shared with Commodus—Persecution of the Christians-New war upon the Danube Death of Aurelius - Accession of Commodus-He purchases peace from the barbarians-Plot of Lucilla against his life-Rage of Commodus against the Senate - State of the provinces and frontiers-Revolt of Maternus- The ministers Perennis and Cleander – Profligacy of Commodus-His performances in the amphitheatre -His assumption of divinity-His monstrous arrogance-Death of Commodus-Epoch of the decisive decline of the Empire - Roman and Greek literature in the second century


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