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OWEN (Thomas), a judge of the common pleas, miles. There are supposed to be on this island son of Richard Owen, esq., of Condover in above 100,000 inhabitants. The men are above Shropshire. He was educated at Oxford; and, the middle size, stout, well made, and fleshy, having taken his degree of A.M., he left the uni- but not fat. Their color is brown olive. The versity, and entered himself of Lincoln's Inn in women are in general masculine, though there London, where he became an eminent counsel- are some exceptions. The features of both sexes lor. In 1583 he was elected Lent reader to that are good; and some of the females are really society. In 1590 he was made serjeant at law, fine women. They are very healthy, and some and queen's serjeant soon after. In 1593 he live to a great age. They are all thieves, without was made judge of the common-pleas; which exception. The custom of tattooing prevails office he executed with great abilities and in- greatly among them; but the men have a much tegrity. He died in 1598, and was buried in larger share of it than the women. Westminster Abbey, where a monument was and women are very cleanly in their persons ; erected to his memory. He was a learned man, the latter wash their whole bodies in fresh water and a patron of literature. He was the author of twice, and sometimes three times, a-day. They Reports in the Common Pleas, London, 1656, are extremely lascivious. Their clothing confolio.

sists of cloth of different kinds : that worn by the Owen (John), M.A., a modern divine, one of men, which is called marro, is about half a yard the earliest members and long the Church of wide, and four yards long; that of the women, England's secretary of the Bible Society, was three-quarters of a yard wide, and of the same educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, length as the men's: this they call pah-o-ouwa; where he obtained a fellowship, and proceeded they both wear it round their middle, but the to the degree of master of arts. In 1791 he tra- men pass it between their legs. This is the velled through Europe, with a pupil, and on his general dress of both sexes; but the better sort return published an amusing account of his sometimes throw a large piece loosely over their tour, in two volumes octavo. After this he became shoulders. Besides the marro, they have several curate of Fulham, where his exertions procured other kinds of cloth; all, however, are made him the patronage of bishop Porteus, who gave from the Chinese paper mulberry tree. The him the living of Paglesham, in Essex. But principal of these is the cappa, which is about Dr. Randolph, the successor of that prelate, in- ten or twelve feet long, and nearly as many sisted upon Mr. Owen's residence at his rectory, wide, and is thick and warm; they wrap themby which he was obliged to relinquish the curacy selves up in this when they retire to sleep. of Fulham; when the inhabitants presented him They have another kind, which is white, and with a purse of nearly £700. He died September much thinner; it is sometimes twenty or thirty 26th, 1822. His other works, besides tracts and yards long, and wide in proportion. The marro sermons, are, The Retrospect, or Reflections on and pah-o-ouwa are curiously painted of various the State of Religion and Politics in France and patterns; but the others are generally white, or Great Britain, 8vo.; The Christian Monitor for dyed red, black, and yellow. The principal orthe Last Days, 8vo.; Vindication of the Bible naments of the men are feather-caps and cloaks. Society, 8vo.; History of the same, 4 vols. 8vo. They have also a kind of fly-flap, made of a

OWHYHEE, the easternmost, and by far the bunch of feathers, fixed to the end of a thin largest, of the Sandwich Islands. It is of a piece of smooth and polished wood. The handle triangular shape. The angular points make the is very frequently made of one of the bones of north-east and south extremities, of which the the arm or leg of those whom they have killed northern is in long. 204° 2' E., lat. 20° 17' N.; in battle, curiously inlaid with tortoise-shell : the eastern in long. 205° 6' E., lat. 19° 34' N.; these they deem very valuable, and will not part and the southern extremity in long. 204° 15' E., with them under a great price. This ornament lat. 18° 54' N. Its greatest length, which lies in is common to the superiors of both sexes. The a direction nearly north and south, is eighty-five ornament which the women value most is the miles; its breadth is seventy-two miles; and it is orai. This is a kind of ruff or necklace, made of about 255 geographical, or 293 English, miles in red, green, black, and yellow feathers, curiously circumference. It is divided into six large dis- put together, and in most elegant patterns. tricts; two of which, on the north-east side, are Others are composed of small variegated shells; separated by a mountain that rises in three and some consist of several rows of twisted hair, peaks, which are perpetually covered with snow, with a piece of carved wood or bone, highly and may be seen clearly at forty leagues distance. polished, the bottom part forming a curve. They To the north of this mountain the coast consists have also the poo-remah or bracelet; the most of high and steep cliffs, down which fall many valuable of which are made of boars' tusks, beautiful cascades. The whole country is covered fastened together side by side with a piece of with cocoa-nut and bread-fruit trees. The peaks string, by means of a hole drilled through the of the mountains on the north-east side are about middle. half a mile in height, and entirely covered with In 1794 this island was ceded by the king and snow. To the south of this mountain the coast his chiefs to Great Britain. Mr. Puget, lieutepresents a prospect of the most dreary kind, the nant of the Discovery, accompanied by some of whole country appearing to have undergone a the officers, went on shore, there displayed the total change by some dreadful convulsion. British colors, and took possession of the island Among the plantations are a few huts, for shelter in his majesty's name, in conformity to the into the laborers; but there are no villages at a clinations of l'amaahmaah and his subjects. Or greater distance from the sea than four or five this ceremony being finished, a salute was fire]

France.

Tatler.

1779.

Sax,

Now

from the vessels: after which the following in- We understand by some owlers, old people die in
scription on copper was deposited in a very
conspicuous place at the royal residence:-“On By running goods, these graceless oưlers gain.
the 25th of February 1794, Tamaalmaah, king

Swifi. of Owhyhee, in council with the principal chiefs OWLING, so called from its being usually of the island, assembled on board his Britannic carried on in the night, is the offence of transinajesty's sloop Discovery, in karakakooa Bay, porting wool or sheep out of this kingdom, to the and in presence of George Vancouver, com- detriment of its staple manufacture. This was mander of the said sloop; lieutenant Peter Pu- forbidden at common law, particularly by stat. get, commander of his said majesty's armed 11 Edw. III. c. 1, when the importance of our tender the Chatham; and the other officers of woollen manufacture was first attended to; and the Discovery, after due consideration, unani- there are now many later statutes relating to mously ceded the said island of Chrhyhee to his this offence, the principal of which are those Britannic majesty, and acknowledged themselves enacted in the reign of queen Elizabeth, and to be subjects of Great Britain.' On this island since. The stat. 8 Eliz. c. 3, makes the transthe celebrated captain Cook fell a sacrifice to a portation of live sheep, or embarking them on misunderstanding, or sudden impulse of revenge, board any ship, for the first offence, forfeiture of in the natives, on Sunday the 14th of February, goods, and imprisonment for a year, and that at

the end of the year the left hand shall be cut off Since captain Cook discovered these islands, in some public market, and shall be there nailed an astonishingly rapid civilisation has taken up in the openest place; and the second offence place amongst the natives, by their intercourse is felony. The statutes 12 Car. II. c. 3., and with Europeans. In 1791 captain Vancouver 7 & 8 Will

. III. c. 28, make the exportation of laid down the keel, and prepared the frame-work, wool, sheep, or fullers' earth, liable to pecuniary of a vessel for the king, whose size was thirty- penalties, and the forfeiture of the interest of the six feet by nine and a quarter. Ten years after, ship and cargo by the owners, if privy; and conthis chief had increased his nevy to twenty ves- fiscation of goods, and three years' imprisonsels of different sizes, from twenty-five to fiftyment to the master and all the mariners. And tons, and some of them coppered, chiefly built the statute 4 Geo. I. c. 11 (amended and farther by Americans. In 1805 bis largest vessel was enforced by 12 Geo. II. c. 21, and 19 Geo. II. seventy tons, and he was well supplied with C. 34) makes it transportation for seven years, if naval stores. His people, from making frequent the penalties be not paid. voyages to the north-west coast of America, and OUT, 11. s. & v.d.

Goth. agn, in the South Sea whalers, have become expert OWNER,

?wihn property). seamen, and they talk of opening a direct trade

OWNERSHIP.

an emphatica! in their own vessels with China; the island addition to personal pronouns, as 'my own, producing pearls, pearl-shell, and sandal-wood, « his own,' &c., meaning his property or possesall valuable in the China market. The king has sion. See Owe. Also denoung domestic as a fortification round his house, mounting ten distinguished from foreign; mine; or his; yours: guns; and a guard of 200 native soldiers, well to own is to claim as property : hence to avow disciplined, and perfect in the use of fire-aris, or avouch ; confess: owner is he who owns or who do regular duty night and day. He has, possesses; rightful possession: ownership, right besides, 2000 stand of arms, and upwards of of property or possession. 12,000 Spanish dollars, together with other

Every nation made gods of their own, and put them. valuable articles, which he has collected in trade, in high places.

2 Kings, xvii. 29. and deposited in regular store-bouses. Some

I yet never was forsworn, horned cattle left at (why hee by Vancouver have Scarce have coveted what was my oun. greatly multiplied.

Shakspeare. Sar. ule; Dan. ugle; Sans. It is not enough to break into my garden, oolloo ; Lat. ulula. (All, perhaps,

Climbing my walls in spite of me the owner,

But thou wilt brave me. from the noise of the bird). A well-known bird of night...

Here shew favour, because it happeneth that the owner hath incurred the forfeiture of eight years' pro

fit of his lands, before he cometh to the knowledge of No! rather I abjure all roofs, and chuse the process againstohim.

. To be a comrade with the wolf and oul.

They intend advantage of my labours,

Shakspeare. With no small profil daily to my ou ners. 'Twas when the dog-star's unpropitious ray Smote every brain, and withered every bay;

These toils abroad, these tumults with his own, Sick was the sun, the owl forsook his power.

Fell in the revolution of one year.

Nor hath it been thus only amongst the more ci-
Then lady Cynthia, mistress of the shade, vilized nations ; but the barbarous Indians likewise
Goes, with the fashionable ouls, to bed. Young.
The night (I sing by night--sometimes an owl,

Make this truth so evident that those who are un.
And now and then a nightingale )-is dim,

willing to own it may yet be ashamed to deny it.

Tillotson.
And the loud shriek of sage Minerva's fowl
Rattles around me her discordant hymn. Byron.

I'll venture out alone,

Since you, fair princess, my protection ww7. Owi, in ornithology. See Strix.

Druden. OWL'ER, 11. s. Supposed to be corrupted Tell me, ye Trojans, for that name you oun, from wooller. A contraband dealer in wool. Nor is your course upon our coasts unknown.

Sused as

7

0111, 1. S. ?

Owl'ET.

Id.

Return to her!

Bacun.

Milton.

Daniel.

Dunciad.

have owned that tradition.

Ililkins.

Id.

Id.

Graunt.

Locke.

Addison.

Addison.

Pope.

Id.

These wait the owners last despair,

The horns of oren and cows are larger than the And what's permitted to the flames invade. bulls ; which is caused by abundance of moisture.

. There's nothing sillier than a crafty knave out. witted, and beaten at his own play.

L'Estrange. Although there be naturally more males than feIt is conceit rather than understanding, if it must males, yet artificially, that is, by making geldings, be under the restraint of receiving and holding opi- oxen, and wethers, there are fewer. nions by the authority of any thing but their own The field is spacious I design to sow, perceived evidence.

With osen far unfit to draw the plough. Dryden. Others will own their weakness of understanding. I saw the river Clitumnus, celebrated by the poets

Id. for making cattle white that drink of it. The inhaIn a real action, the proximate cause is the pro- bitants of that country have still the same opinion, perty or oronership of the thing in controversy. and have a great many oxen of a whitish colour to

Ayliffe's Parergon.

confirm them in it. That small muscle draws the nose upwards, when

The frowning bull
And ox half-raised.

Thomson's Summer. it expresses the contempt which the owner of it has upon seeing any thing he does not like.

Ox. See Bos. It must be owned, that, generally speaking, good

OXALIC Acid, in chemistry, which abounds parents are never more fond of their

daughters, than in wood sorrel, and which, combined with a when they see them too fond of themselves. Law. Victory hath not made us insolent, nor have we

small portion of potash, as it exists in that plant,

has been sold under the name of salt of lemons, taken advantage to gain any thing beyond the honour of restoring every one's right to their just owners. to be used as a substitute for the juice of that

Atterbury.

fruit, particularly for discharging ink spots and Passion and pride were to her sonl unknown, iron-moulds, was long supposed to be analogous Convinced that virtue only is our own.

to that of tartar. In the year 1776, however, Others on earth o'er human race preside, Bergman discovered that a powerful acid might Of these the chief, the care of nations own, be extracted from sugar by means of the nitric; And guard with arms divine the British throne.

and a few years afterwards Scheele found this to

be identical with the acid existing naturally in What is this wit, which must our cares employ? sorrel. Hence the acid began to be distinguished The owner's wife, that other men enjoy. Id.

For he that wrote so much, and so fast, would by the name of saccharine; but has since been through inadvertence and hurry, unavoidably have known in the new nomenclature by that of departed from rules which he might have found in oxalic.

Scheele extracted this acid from the salt of books: but his own truly poetical talent was a guide which could not suffer him to err.

Cowper. sorrel, or acidulous oxalate of potash, as it exists But, by each joy of his I've known,

in the juice of that plant, by saturating it with And all I yet shall make my own,

ammonia, when it becomes a very soluble triple Never will I, with humble speech,

salt, and adding to the solution nitrate of barytes Pray to a heaven I cannot reach.

dissolved in water. Having well washed the Then how, my soul, can we be poor, oxalate of barytes, which is precipitated, he disWho own what kingdoms could not buy? solved it in boiling water, and precipitated its of this true heart thou shalt be queen,

base by sulphuric acid. To ascertain that no And, serving thee, a monarch I.

sulphuric acid remained in the supernatant liThe patient Sculptor owns an humbler part, A ruder toil, and more mechanic art;

quor, he added a little of a boiling solution of Content with slow and timorous stroke to trace

oxalate of barytes till no precipitate took place, The lingering line, and mould the tardy grace.

and then filtered the liquor, which contained

nothing but pure oxalic acid, which he crystalBut Virtue's self, with all her tightest laces, lised by evaporation and cooling. Has not the natural stays of strict old age ;

It may be obtained, however, much more reaAnd Socrates, that model of all duty,

dily and economically from sugar in the followOwned to a penchant, though discreet, for beauty. ing way :-To six ounces of nitric acid in a

Byron.

stoppered retort, to which a large receiver is Adeline, no deep judge of character,

luted, add, by degrees, one ounce of lump sugar Was apt to add a colouring from her own. 'Tis thus the good will amiably err,

coarsely powdered. A gentle heat may be apAnd eke the wise, as has been often shown. Id.

plied during the solution, and nitric oxide will

be evolved in abundance. When the whole of France at our doors, he sees no danger nigh, But heaves for Turkey's woes the' impartial sigh ;

the sugar is dissolved, distil off a part of the A steady patriot of the world alone,

acid, till what remains in the retort has a syrupy The friend of every country--but his own.

consistence, and this will form regular crystals,

Canning amounting to fifty-eight parts from 100 of sugar. OX, n. s. ?

Plural Oxen. Sax. oxa; Goth. These crystals must be dissolved in water, reOxGang. Dan. and Swed. ore ; Teut. ochg; crystallised, and dried on blotting paper. Welch ych. A castrated bull: a general name

Oxalate of lime is found in the roots of the for black cattle: an oxgang was an ancient mea

following plants :-Alkana, apium, bistorta, carsure of land, containing twenty acres.

lina acaulis, curcuma, dictamnus albus, fænicuSheep run not half so t'm'rous from the wolf,

lum, gentiana rubra, vincetoxicum, lapathum, Or borse or oren from the leopard,

liquiritia, mandragora, ononis, iris Florentina, As you fly from your oft-subdued slaves.

iris nostras, rheum, saponaria, scilla, sigillum Shakspeare.

salomonis, tormentilla, valeriana, zedoaria, zingiThe black og hath not trod on his foot.

ber. And in the following barks :—berberis, Camden. cassia fistularis, canella alba, cinamomum, cas

Sheridan.

Id.

Id.

carilla, cassia caryophyllata, china, culilavan, We a fitter affinity for lime than for any other frangula, fraxinus, qua-sia, queres, sumarubia, of the baseň, and forms with it a pulverulent inlignum sanctum, ulmus. In the state of binoxy- soluble salt, not decomposable except by tire, late of potash it exists in the leaves of the oxalis and turning yyrup of violets green. acetosella, oxalis corniculata, different species of From the oxalate of lead Berzelius infers its rumex, and geranium acidum.

prime equivalent to be 4:552, and by igneous The juice of the cicer parietinum is said to be decomposition he finds it resolved into ou 534 pure oxalic acid. Beryman procured it from oxygen, 33.222 Carbon, and 0.241 hydroxen. honey, gum-arabic, alcohol , and the calculous Since Berzelius published his analysis

, oxalic concretions in the kidneys and bladders of ani- acid has been made the subject of some intenjois mals. Scheele and Herinbstadt from sugar of remark by Doberciner, in the loth vol. of milk. Scheele from a sweet matter contained in Schweizer's Journal. We see that the carbon fat oils, and also from the uncrystallisable part and oxyien are to each oiher in the simple ratio of the juice of lemons. Hermbstadt from the of' 1 102; or, referred to their prime equivalent, acid of cherries, and the acid of tartar. Goett- as 2 of carbon = 1:5, to 3 of origen = 3:0. ling from beech-wood. kohl from the residuum This proportion is what would result from a in the distillation of ardent spirits. Westrumb), prune of carbonic acid =( + 2. O, combined not only from the crystallised acids of currants, with one of carbonic oxide = ( + 0). C being cherries, citrons, and raspberries, but also from carbon, and () oxygen. The sum of the above the saccharine matter of these fruits, and from weights gives 4:5 for the prime equivalent of the uncrystallisable parts of the acid juices: oxalic acid, disresariling hvdrocen, which conJlofimann from the juice of the barberry; and stitutes but one-thirty-seventh of the whole, and Berthollet from silk, hair, tendons, wool; also may possibly be referred to the imperfect desicfrom other animal substances, especially from the cation of the oxalate of lead subjected to analysis. coagulum of blood, whites of eis, and likewise Oxalic acid acts as a violent poison when swalfrom the amylaceous and glutinous parts of lowed in the quanuty of two or three drachms; flour. V. Berthollet observes that the quantity and several fatal accidents have lately occurred of the oxalic acid obtained by treating wool with in London, in consequence of its being innitric acid was very considerable, being above properly sold instead of Epsom salts. Its vulhalf the weight of the wool employed. lle men- gar name of sales, under which the acid is bou sht cions a ditlerence which he observed between for the purpose of whitening boot-tops, occasions animal and vegetable substances thus treated these lamentable mistakes. But the powerfully with nitric acid, namely, that the former yielded, acid taste of the latter substance, joined to its beside ammonia, a large quantity of an oil which jurismatic or needle-formed crystallisation, pre the nitric acid could not decompose; whereas sufficient 10 distinguish it from every thing else's the oily parts of vegetables were totally destroyed The inmediate rejection from the stomach of by the action of this acid : and he remarks iliat this acid by an emerie, aided by copious draughts in this instance the glutinous part of four re- of warm water containing bicarbonate of potası, sembled animal substances, whereas the amy- or soda, chalk, or carbonate of magnesla, are laceous part of the four retained its vettable the proper remedies. properties. He further remarks that the quantity With barytes it forms an insolulile salt; but of oxalic acid furnished by vegetable matter's this salt will dissolve in water acidulared wine thus treated is proportionable to their nutritive oxalic acid, and afford ansular (rystals. It, quality, and particularly that, from cotton, le bowever, we attempt 10 disolve these crystals in could not obtain any sensible quantity. Deyeux, boiling water, the excess of acid will unite with having cut with scissars the hairs of the chick the water, and leave the oxilate, which will be pea, found they gave out an acid liquor, which, precipitated. on examination, proved to be an aqueous solu- The oxalate of strontian too is a nearly insoliition of pure oxalic acid. Proust, and other ble compound. chemists, had before observed that the shoes. Oxalaie of magnesia too is insoluble, unless of persons walking through a field of chick peas the acid je in excess. were corroded.

The oxalate of potash exists in two states, that Oxalic acid crystallises in quadrilateral prisms, of a nevtral sali, and that of an acidule. The the sides of which are alternately broad and nar- latter is gi nerally obtamed from the juice of the row, and summits dihedral; or, if crystallised leaves of the oxalis acetoselle, wood sorrel, or rapidly, in small irregular needles. They are rumex acetosa, common orrel. The expressed efforescent in dry air, but attract a little hu- juice, being diluted with water, should be set ly midity if it be damp; are soluble in one part of for a few days, till the feculent parts lave vibhot and two of cold water; and are decoinposable sited, and the supernatant fundin become clear; by a red heat, leaving a small quantity of coaly or it may be clarified, when expressed, with the residum. 100 parts of alcohol take up nearly whites of cines. It is then to be strained off, fifty-six at a boiling beat, but not above foriý evaporated 10 at pellicle, and set in a cool place cold. Their acidity is so great that, when dis- to crystallise. The first product of crystals being solved in 3000 times their weight of water, the taken out, the liquor may be further evaporated solution reddens litmus paper, and is perceptibly and crystallised; and the same process repecited! acid to the taste.

more can be obiained in this wali The oxalic acid is a good test for detecting Schlereih informis lis about nine danas of lime, which it separates from all the other acidi, chuni els may be obined fom 1910 pounds of unless they are present in excess. It has lhe jaile, whici are gancially in orded by te'n pounds

till no

of wood sorrel. Savary, however, says that ten which in the extent and number of its instituparts of wood sorrel, in full vegetation, yield tions and the wealth of its endowments is unhive parts of juice, which give liule more than a equalled. The city stands on a gentle eminence, 200th of tolerably pure salt. He boiled down in a valley, at the confluence of the Isis and the juice, however, in the first instance, without Cherwell, which descending towards the south, clarifying it; and was obliged repeatedly to dis- and uniting at an acute angle, nearly encompass solve and recrystallise the salt to obtain it white. it. Between these streams and the city, particu

This salt is in small, white, needley, or lamel- larly on the south and west, are beautiful and lar crystals, not alterable in the air. It unites luxuriant meadows; and beyond them the proswith barytes, magnesia, soda, ammonia, and most pect is bounded on the east, south, and west, by of the nietallic oxides, into triple salts. Yet its an amphitheatre of hills. From these hills the solution precipitates the nitric solutions of mer- city presents a noble spectacle. It is of an oval cury and silver in the state of insoluble oxalates form, and was formerly surrounded by a wall, of these metals, the nitric acid in this case com- about two miles in circumference, having basbining with the potash. Jt attacks iron, lead, tions at 150 feet distant from each other; very tin, zinc, and antimony.

little of these works, however, remain. The This salt, beside its use in taking out ink spots, city and suburbs now include a circuit of three and as a test of lime, forms with sugar and miles, extending in length a mile and a quarter water a pleasant cooling beverage; and, accord- from east to west, and about as much from north ing to Berthollet, it possesses considerable powers to south. The entrances east, south, and west, as an antiseptic.

present bridges crossing the respective rivers. The neutral oxalate of potash is very soluble, Magdalen bridge is an elegant stone building and assumes a gelatinous form, but may be over the Cherwell, 526 feet in length, built in brought to crystallise in hexahedral prisms with 1779, at an expense of £3000. That over the dihedral summits, by adding more potash to the Isis, on the west, consists of three substantial liquor than is sufficient to saturate the acid. arches. On the south is another over the same

Oxalate of soda likewise exists in two different river, on which, till lately, stood a lofty tower, states, those of an acidulous and a neutral salt, termed Friar Bacon's Study. From Magdalen which in their properties are analogous to those bridge the High-street stretches westwards, unof potash.

der different names, through the whole city. At The acidulous oxalate of ammonia is crystal- Quarte Vois, or Carfax church, this is crossed lisable, not very soluble, and capable, like the at right angles by St. Giles's, the other principal preceding acidules, of combining with other street ; and from these most of the other streets bases, so as to form triple salts. But, if the acid diverge. be saturated with ammonia, we obtain a neutral High-street is perhaps the most beautiful in oxalate, which, on evaporation, yields very fine the world for its length and breadth, the number crystals in tetrahedral prisms with dihedral sum- and elegance of its public buildings, and its mits, one of the planes of which cuts off three remarkably graceful curvature, continually pre

sides of the prism. This salt is decomposable senting new combinations of objects. St. . by fire, which raises from it carbonate of am- Giles's begins near the church of that name, and

monia, and leaves only some slight traces of a is for some distance of a fine width. It contains coaly residuum. Lime, barytes, and strontian, the town hall and Christ Church. All the unite with its acid, and the ammonia flies off in streets are well lighted, paved, and watched. the form of gas.

The houses originally erected as lodgings for the The oxalic acid readily dissolves alumina, students or gentry during the occasional resiand the solution gives on evaporation a yellowish dence of the court here, still appear, and are transparent mass, sweet and a little astringent to often built of stone on an extensive scale. The the taste, deliquescent, and reddening tincture of best modern houses are situated in St. Giles's. litmus, but not syrup of violets. This salt The university consists of twenty colleges, and swells up in the fire, loses its acid, and leaves four halls, each of which has its own students the alumina a little colored.

and teachers, revenues and regulations, while OXALIS, wood sorrel, a genus of the pen- they are all united in a common university governtazynia order, and decandria class of plants : ment. The students all live in their respective natural order fourteenth, gruinales : Cal. penta- colleges at their own expense or that of the uniphyllous, the petals connected at the heels: caps. versity ; and on their entrance qualify as mempentagonal, and opening at the angles. There bers of the church of England. The university, are seven species; the only remarkable one is as a corporate body, acts under a charter of

0. acetosella, common wood sorrel. This Charles I., and consists of the vice-chancellor, grows naturally in moist shady woods, and heads of houses, and proctors ; of the house of at the sides of hedges in many parts of Britain, convocation, which is formed by the vice-chanand is seldom admitted into gardens. The roots cellor, proctors, and all doctors and masters who are coinposed of many scaly joints, which pro- have taken out their regency; and of the conpagate in great plenty. The leaves arise imme- gregation, which is composed of the vice-chandiately from the roots upon single long foot- cellor, the proctors or their deputies, the necesstalks, and are composed of three heart-shaped sary regents (doctors in divinity, law, lobes. They are gratefully acid, and of use in medicine, or masters of arts for the first two the scurvy and other putrid disorders. years after they are admitted to their degrees),

OXFORD, a city of England, the county town and the regents ad placitum (all resident doctors, of Oxfordshire, and celebrated for its university, all public professors and lecturers, all heads of

or

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