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any interrogatories, but this : that he was born a prince, and if princes came to speak with him he would answer, but none present being such, he thought himself obliged, in honor, to hold his tongue;" and that he said he would rather die than remain a prisoner, and requested that Oneko might put him to death, as he was of equal rank. “Yet withall threatened, he had 2000 men, (who] would revenge his death severely. Wheretore our forces, fearing an escape, put the stoutest men to the sword, but preserved Myantonomy till they returned to Stoneington; where our Índian friends, and most of the English soldiers, declaring to the commanders their fear that the English should, upon conditions, release him, and that then he would, (though the English might have peace with him,) be very pernicious to those Indians that now assisted us, the said Indians, (on these considerations, and the mischiefs and murthers he had done during this war,) permitted to put him to death.* And that all might share in the glory of destroying so great a prince, and come under the obligation of fidelity, each to other, the Pequods shot him, the Mohegins cut off his head and quartered his body, and the Ninnicrofts men made the fire and burned his quarters, and, as a token of their love and fidelity to the English, presented his head to the council at Hartford !” This must close our notice of Nanuntenoo, in this place, and we hasten to speak of
Annawon, a Wampanoag, and one of Philip's most famous counsellors and captains. He was his fast friend, and resisted as long as there was a beam of hope ; and when at last every chance of success had failed, he gave himself
up in the most heroic manner, as will appear in the following account.
At the swamp, when Philip was killed, he escaped with most of his men, as has been related, by his thoroughly understanding the situation of his enemies. Perceiving (says Church) they were waylaid on the east side of the swamp, tacked short about. One of the enemy, who seemed to be a great surly old fellow, hallooed with a loud voice, and often called out, l-oo-tash, 1-oo-tash. Captain Church called to his Indian Peter, and asked him who that was that called so. He answered that it was old Annawon, Philip's great captain, calling on his soldiers to stand to it, and fight stoutly."
“ Captain Church had been but little while at Plimouth, (after the death of Philip,] before a post from Rehoboth came to inform the governor that old Annawon, Philip's chief captain, was with his company ranging about their woods, and was very offensive and pernicious to Rehoboth and Swansey. Captain Church was immediately sent for again, and treated with to engage in one expedition more. He told them their encouragement was su poor, he feared his soldiers would be dull about going again. But being a hearty friend to the cause, he rallies again, goes to Mr. Jabez Howland, his old lieutenant, and some of his soldiers that used to go out with him, told them how the case was circumstanced, and that he had intelligence of old Annawon's walk and haunt, and wanted bands to hunt him. They did not want much entreating, but told him they would go with him as long as there was an Indian left in the woods. He moved and ranged through the woods to Pocasset.”
In the early part of this expedition, some of Captain Church's Indian scouts captured a number of Annawon's company, but from whom they could learn nothing of the old chief, only that he did not lodge “ twice in a place.”
« Now a certain Indian soldier, that Captain Church had gained over to
* This seems to us the most probable account of the affair of all we have seen. + The son of Awashonks, it is supposed.
be on his side, prayed that he might have liberty to go and fetch in his father, who, he said, was about four miles from that place, in a swamp, with no other than a young squaw. Captain Church inclined to go with him, thinking it might be in his way to gain some intelligence of Annawon; and so taking one Englishman and a few Indians with him, leaving the rest there, he went with his new soldier to look his father. When he came to the swamp, he bid the Indian go and see if he could find his father. He was no sooner gone, but Captain Church discovered a track coming down out of the woods upon which he and his little company lay close, some on one side of the track, and some on the other. They heard the Indian soldier making a howling for his father, and at length somebody answered him; but while they were listening, they thought they heard somebody coming towards them. Presently they saw an old man coming up, with a gun on his shoulder, and a young woman following in the track which they lay by. They let them come between them, and then started up and laid hold of them both. Captain Church inmediately examined them apart, telling them what they must trust to if they told false stories. He asked the young woman what company they came from last. She said from Captain Annawon's. He asked her how many were in company with him when she left him. She said. fifty or sixty.' He asked her how many miles it was to the place where she left him. She said she did not understand miles, but he was up in Squannaconk swamp. The old man, who had been one of Philip's council, upon examination, gave exactly the same account.” On being asked whether they could get there that night, answered, “ If we go presently, and travel stoutly, we may get there by sunset." The old man said he was of Annawon's company, and that Annawon had sent him down to find some Indians that were gone down into Mount Hope neck to kill provisions. Captain Church let him know that that company were all his prisoners.
The Indian who had been permitted to go after his father, now returned with him and another man. Captain Church was now at great loss what he should do. He was unwilling to miss of so good an opportunity of giving a finishing blow to the Indian power. He had, as himself says, but “ half a dozen men beside himself," and yet was under the necessity of sending some one back to give Lieutenant Howland, whom he left at the old fort in Pocasset, notice, if he should proceed. But, without wasting time in pondering upon what course to pursue, he put the question to his men, “ whether they would willingly go with him and give Arawon a visit.” All answered in the affirmative, but reminded him " that they knew this Captain Annawon was a great soldier ; that he had been a valiant captain under Asuhmequin, (Woosamequin,] Philip's father ; and that he had been Philip's chieftain all this war.” And they further told Captain Church, (and these men knew him well,) that he was “a very subtle man, of great resolution, and had often said that he would never be taken alive by the English.”.
They also reminded him that those with Annawon were “ resolute fellows, some of Philip's chief soldiers,” and very much feared that to make the attempt with such a handful of soldiers, would be hazardous in the extreme. But nothing could shake the resolution of Captain Church, who remarked to them, " that he had a long time sought for Annawon, but in vain," and doubted not in the least but Providence would protect them. All with one consent now desired to proceed.
A man by the name of Cook,* belonging to Plimouth, was the only Englishman in the company, except the captain. Captain Church asked Mr. Cook what his opinion of the undertaking was.
He made no other
Caleb, doubtless, who was present at the time Philip was killed.
reply than this: “I am never afraid of going any where when you are with me.” The Indian who brought in his father informed Captain Church, that it was impossible for him to take his horse with him, which he had brought thus far. He therefore sent him and his father, with the horse, back to Lieutenant Howland, and ordered them to tell him to take his prisoners immediately to Taunton, and then to come out the next morning in the Rehoboth road, where, if alive, he hoped to meet him.
Things being thus settled, all were ready for the journey. Captain Church turned to the old man, whom he took with the young woman, and asked him whether he would be their pilot. He said, “ You having given me my life, I am under obligations to serve you." They now marched for Squannaconk. In leading the way, this old man would travel so much faster than the rest, as sometimes to be nearly out of sight, and consequently might have escaped without fear of being recaptured, but he was true to his word, and would stop until his wearied followers came up:
Having travelled through swamps and thickets until the sun was setting, the pilot ordered a stop. The captain asked him if he had made any discovery. He said, “ About that hour of the day, Annawon usually sent out his scouts to see if the coast was clear, and as soon as it began to grow dark the scouts returned, and then we may move securely.” When it was sufficiently dark, and they were about to proceed, Captain Church asked the old man if he would take a gun and fight for him. He bowed very low, and said, “I pray you not to impose such a thing upon me as to fight against Captain Annawon, my old friend, but I will go along with you, and be helpful to you, and will lay hands on any man that shall offer to hurt you.” They had proceeded but a short space, when they heard a noise, which they concluded to be the pounding of a mortar. This warned them that they were in the vicinity of Annawon's retreat. And here it will be very proper to give a description of it. It is situated in the south-easterly corner of Rehoboth, about eight miles from Taunton Green, a few rods froin the road which leads to Providence, and on the south-easterly side of it. If a straight line were drawn from Taunton to Providence, it would pass very nearly over this place. Within the limits of an immense swamp of nearly 3000 acres, there is a small piece of upland, separated from the main only by a brook, which in some seasons is dry. This island, as we may call it, is nearly covered with an enormous rock, which to this day is called Annawon's Rock. Its south-east side presents an almost perpendicular precipice, and rises to the height of 25 or 30 feet. The north-west side is very sloping, and easy of ascent, being at an angle of not more than 35 or 40°. À more gloomy and hidden recess, even now, although the forest tree no longer waves over it, could hardly be found by any inhabitant of the wilderness.
When they arrived near the foot of the rock, Captain Church, with two of his Indian soldiers, crept to the top of it, from whence they could see distinctly the situation of the whole company, by the light of their fires. They were divided into three bodies, and lodged a short distance from one another. Annawon's camp was formed by felling a tree against the rock, with bushes set up on each side.
Nor paused, till the rock where a vaulted bed
Mrs. Hemans's Sword of the Tomb.
With him lodged his son, and others of his principal men.
Their guns were discovered standing and leaning against a stick resting on two crotches, safely covered from the weather by a mat. Over their fires were pots and kettles boiling, and meat roasting upon their spits. Captain Church was now at some loss how to proceed, seeing no possibility of getting down the rock without discovery, which would have been fatal. He therefore creeps silently back again to the foot of the rock, and asked the old man, their pilot, if there was no other way of coming at them. He answered, “ No;" and said that himself and all others belonging to the company were ordered to come that way, and none could come any other without danger of being shot.
The fruitful mind of Church was no longer at loss, and the following stratagem was put in successful practice. He ordered the old man and the young woman to go forward, and lead the way, with their baskets upon their backs, and when Annawon should discover them, he would take no alarm, knowing them to be those he had lately sent forth upon discovery. “Captain Church and his handful of soldiers crept down also, under the shadow of those two and their baskets. The captain himself crept, close behind the old man, with his hatchet in his hand, and stepped over the young man's head to the arms. The young Annawon discovering him, whipped his blanket over his head, and shrunk up in a heap. The old Captain Annauon started up on his breech, and cried out. Howoh!' which signified, “Welcom.'"* All hope of escape was now fled forever, and he made no effort, but laid himself down again in perfect silence, while his captors secured the rest of the company. For he supposed the English were far more numerous than they were, and before he was undeceived, his company were all secured.
One circumstance much facilitated this daring project. It has been before mentioned that they heard the pounding of a mortar, on their approach. This continued during their descent down the rock. A squaw was pounding green dried corn for their supper, and when she ceased pounding, to turn the corn, they ceased to proceed, and when she pounded again, they moved. This was the reason they were not heard as they lowered themselves down, from crag to crag, supported by small bushes that grew from the seams of the rock. The pounded corn served afterwards for a sapper to the captors.
Annawon would not have been taken at this time but for the treachery of those of his own company. And well may their Lucan exclaim, as did the Roman,
“A race renowned, the world's victorious lords,
Turned on themselves with their own hostile swords."-Rowe.
The two companies situated at a short distance from the rock knew not the fate of their captain, until those sent by Church announced it to them. And, to prevent their making resistance, they were told, that Capt. Church had encompassed them with his army, and that to make resistance would be inmediate death ; but if they all submitted peaceably, they should have good quarter. “Now they being old acquaintance, and many of thern relations,” readily consented : delivering up their guns and hatchets, they were all conducted to head quarters.
* It is a curious fact, that among the tribes of the west the same word is used to signify approbation : thus, when a speech had been made to some in that region, which pleased them, at the end of each paragraph they would exclaim, “ Hoah? Hoah !!~ Weld's Travels in America.
The fact becomes still more curious when we find the same word used yet farther westeven on the North-west Coast,
and with very nearly the same signification. See Dixon's Voyage, 189. 4to. London, 1789. In this work it is spelt Whoah.
"Things heins thus far settled, Captain Church asked Annawon what he tad for supper, for,' said he, 'I am come to sup with you."" Annawon replied, “ Taubut," with a “big voice,” and, looking around upon his women, ordered them to hasten and provide Capt. Church and his company some supper. He asked Capt. Church " whether he would eat cow beet or horse beef." Church said he would prefer cow beef. It was soon ready, and, by the aid of some salt he had in his pocket, he made a good meal. And here it should be told, that a small bag of salt (which he carried in his pocket) was the only provision he took with him upon this expedition.
When supper was over, Capt. Church set bis men to watch, telling them if they would let him sleep two hours, they should sleep all the rest of the night, he not having slept any for 36 hours before ; but after laying a half hour, and feeling no disposition to sleep, from the momentous cares upon his mind,--for, as Dr. Young says in the Revenge,
“ The dead alone, in such a night, can rest,"
he looked to see if his watch were at their posts, but they were all fast asleep. Annawon felt no more like sleeping than Church, and they lay for some time looking one upon the other. Church spoke not to Annawon, because he could not speak İndian, and thought Annawon could not speak English, but it now appeared that he could, from a conversation they held together. Church had laid down with Annawon to prevent bis escape, of which, however, he did not seem much afraid, for after they had laid a considerable time, Annawon golup and walked away out of sight, which Church considered was on a common occasion; but being gone some time,“he began to suspect some ill design.” He therefore gathered all the guns close to himself, and lay as close as he possibly could under young Annawon's side, that if a shot should be made at him, it must endanger the life of young Annawon also. After laying a while in great suspense, he saw, by the light of the moon, Annawon coming with something in his hands. When he had got to Captain Church, he knelt down before him, and, after presenting him what he had brought, spoke in English as follows :-“Great captain, you have killed Philip, and conquered his country. For I believe that I and my company are the last that war against the English, so suppose the war is ended by your means, and therefore these things belong unto you.” He then took out of his pack a beautifully wrought belt, which belonged to Philip. It was nine inches in breadth, and of such length, as when put about the shoulders of Capt. Church, it reached to his ankles. This was considered, at that time, of great value, being embroidered all over with money, that is, wampumpeag,* of various colors, curiously wrought into figures of birds, beasts and flowers. A second belt, of no less exquisite workmanship, was next presented, which belonged also to Philip.' This, that chief used to ornament his head with; from the back part of which flowed two flags, which decorated his back. A third was a smaller one, with a star upon the end of it, which he wore upon his breast. All three were edged with red hair, which, Annawon said, was got in the country of the Mohawks. These belts, or some of them, it is believed, remain at this day, the property of a family in Swansey. He next took from his pack two horns of glazed powder, and a red cloth blanket. These, it appears, were all that remained of the effects of the great chief. He told Capt. Church that those were Philip’s royalties, which he was wont to adorn himself with, when he sat in state, and he thought himself happy in having an opportunity to present them to him.
* An Iroquois word, signifying a muscle. Gordon's Hist. Pennsylvania, page 598