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nation, arising from the judiciously planted don. The expense of its planting, &c., have masses of trees, and the sight of the cattle caught been enormous; but money cannot be better laid by the eye at different points through the inter- out than on purposes of this lasting benefit and mediate foliage.
national ornament. in the latter description of park another prin- • The plan and size of the park are in every ciple must be proposed and followed. Here respect worthy of the nation. It is larger than that style of distribution and planting denomi- Hyde Park, St. James's, and the Green Park nated the forest style is in place. Long avenues; together; and the trees planted in it about ten open glades stretching out in ample proportions; years ago are already becoming umbrageous. broken ground, set with trees, shrubs, under- The water is very extensive. As you are rowed wood, furze, fern, &c., is admissible, and indeed on it, the variety of views you come upon is addesirable. The grazing animals, in a domain of mirable: sometimes you are in a narrow stream, this order, should be deer or horses, intermixed closely overhung by the branches of trees; prewith a few wild cattle. It has been suggested sently you open upon a wide sheet of water, that, as parks form the prominent features of like a lake, with swans sunning themselves on many capital residences, were the appearance of its bosom; by and by your boat floats near the wildness and forest scenery just alluded to given edge of a smooth lawn fronting one of the villas; to them, the effect would be most grand and im- and then again you catch the perspective of a posing, not only as regarded the actual domain range of superb edifices, the elevation of which is ci which they formed a part, but viewed with contrived to have the effect of one palace. The reference to the whole surrounding country. As park, in fact, is to be belted with groups of these it is, the seats of our principal men of rank and mansions, entirely excluding all sight of the fortune possess many very noble specimens of streets. Many of them are finished, and give a enclosures of this kind-among which we will satisfactory earnest of the splendid spirit in enumerate, by the way, those of Blenheim, Knole, which the whole is to be accomplished. There Stowe, Donnington, Bow Wood, &c.&c. Among will be nothing like it in Europe. The villas in the royal demesnes, Windsor Park stands proudly the interior of the park are planted out from the pre-eminent, and is, indeed, one of the noblest in view of each other, so that the inbabitant of each Europe, and every way worthy to encircle the seems, in his prospect, to be the sole lord of the castle of an English monarch.
surrounding picturesque scenery.' In the metropolis there are several attached No man can erect a park without license under to the crown, but which are become, by pre- the broad seal; for the common law does not enscription, almost the cominon property of the courage matter of pleasure which brings no profit mation, contributing inestimably, not merely to to the commonwealth. But there may be a park the amusement and relaxation, but to the health in reputation erected without any lawful warrant; and comfort of the immense population of the and the owner may bring his action against percapital. Caroline, the queen of George II., once sons killing his deer. To a park, three things enquired of the first Mr. Pitt how much it would are required :—-1. A grant thereof. 2. Enclosures cost her to shut the parks. He replied, “Three by pale, wall, or hedge. 3. Beasts of a park; crowns, your majesty,' and she took the hint. such as the buck, doe, &c. And, where all the To Hyde Park, St. James's Park, and the Green deer are destroyed, it shall no more be counted Park, there has, within these few years, been a park; for a park consists of vert, venison, and most munificently added the Regent's Park. enclosure: and, if it is determined in any of them, Thus a vast space, close by the metropolis, is it is a total disparking. Parks, as well as chases, not only preserved from the encroachment of are subject to the common law, and are not mean buildings, but laid out with groves, lakes, governed by the forest law. See Forest. and villas, with their separate pleasure grounds,
PARK OF ARTILLERY. See ARTILLERY. while through the whole place there is a winding Park or PROVISIONS, in military affairs, the road, which commands at every turn some fresh place where the sutlers pitch their tent in the features of an extensive country prospect. This rear, and sell their provisions to the soldiers. is indeed a desirable appendage to so vast a Likewise that place where the bread-waggons town as London, more especially as the rage for are drawn up, and where the troops receive their building fills every pleasant outlet with bricks, ammunition-biead, being the store of the army. mortar, rubbish, and eternal scaffold-poles, which, Park (Mungo), the celebrated traveller, was whether you walk east, west, north, or south, born at Fowlshiels, in the county of Selkirk, on seem to be running after you.
the 10th of September, 1771. His father was a • The noble appropriation of the district of respectable yeoman, and held a farm under the which we are now speaking is not so much a duke of Buccleuch. At the grammar school of change as a restoration. It was formerly a park, Selkirk, where he was educated, the son is and had a royal palace in it, where, we believe, said to have shown extraordinary application to queen Elizabeth occasionally resided. It was study, and was always at the head of his disparked by Oliver Cromwell, who settled it on class. This inspired his father with the design colonel Thomas llarrison's regiment of dragoons of educating him for the church; he himself, for their pay; but, at the restoration of Charles however, made choice of the medical proII., it passed into the hands of other possessors, fession; and, at the age of fifteen, was bound from which time it has descended through dif- apprentice to Mr. Thomas Anderson, a surgeon ferent proprietors, till, at length, it has reverted of Selkirk, with whom he spent three years. to the crown, by whose public spirit a magnifi- In 1789 he removed to Edinburgh, and attended cent park is secured to the inhabitants of Lon- three successive sessions the lectures delivered
at that great seminary of mulical learning. Mr. when he was invited to London to receive a
The chief, having learned that Mr. Park brilliantly On the signing of the preliminaries was not to return, conceived the treacherous deof peace, in 1801, he received a leiter from Sir sign of appropriating the presents to himself. Joseph Banhes, intimating that the plan of pe- Amadi Fatoumi then relates: I went to the netrating into the interior of Africa would be king to pay my respects to him. On entering revived ; that there were hopes of its receiving the house, I found iwo men who came on horsethe support of government; in which case the back; they were sent by the chief of Yaour. association onld not hesitate 10 recommend They said to the king, ' we are sent by the chief him as the proper person for conducting it. lle of Yaour to let you know that the white men beard nothing farther till the autumn of 1303, went away withoutsning you or him (the chief
any thing ; they have a great many things with in 1504, in the reign of Henry VII. His father them, and we have received nothing from them; died when he was twelve years old; but his and this Amadi Fatcuma now before you is a bad mother, at the age of seventeen, sent him to man, and has likewise made a fool of you both.' Corpus-Christi College in Cambridge, where, in The king immediately ordered me to be put in 1523, he took his degree of A. B. In 1527' he irons; which was accordingly done; and every was ordained, created A. M., and chosen fellow. thing I had taken from me; some were for kill- In 1533 or 1534 he was made chaplain to queen ing me, and some for preserving my life. The Anne Boleyn, who obtained for him the deanery next morning early, the king sent an army to a of Stoke-Clare in Suffolk, where he founded a village called Boussa, near the river side. There grammar school. After her death Henry made is before this village a rock across the whole him his own chaplain, and in 1541 prebend of breadth of the river. One part of the rock is Ely. In 1544 he was elected master of Corpusvery high; there is a large opening in that rock Christi College; and, in 1555, vice-chancellor of in the form of a door, which is the only passage the university. In 1547 he lost the deanery of for the water to pass through ; the tide current Stoke, by the dissolution of the college; and is here very strong. This army went and took married the daughter of Robert Harlestone, a possession of the top of this opening. Mr. Norfolk gentleman. In 1552 he was nominated Park came thither after the army liad posted by Edward VI. dean of Lincoln, which enabled itself; he nevertheless attempted to pass. The him to live in great affluence: but Mary I. was people began to attack him, throwing lances, hardly seated on the throne before he was depikes, arrows, and stones. Mr. Park defended prived of every thing, and obliged to live in obhimself for a long time; two of his slaves at the scurity, often changing his place of abode to stern of the canoe were killed ; they threw every avoid the fate of the other reformers. Queen thing they had in the canoe into the river, and Elizabeth succeeded in 1558; and in 1559 Dr. kept firing; but being overpowered by numbers Parker, from indigence and obscurity, was at and fatigue, and unable to keep up the canoe once raised to the see of Canterbury; an honor against the current, and there being no probabi- which he neither solicited nor desired. lity of escaping, Mr. Park took hold of one of consecrated December 17th, 1559, by the four the white men, and jumped into the water; surviving reformed bishops. In this high station Martyn did the same, and they were drowned in he acted with spirit and propriety. He visited the stream in attempting to escape. The only his cathedral and diocese in 1560, 1565, 1570, slave remaining in the boat, seeing the natives and 1573. He repaired and beautified his persist in throwing weapons at the canoe, with- palaces at Lambeth and Canterbury, at an exout ceasing, stood up anu said to them, ' Stop pense of above £1400 sterling, which is at least throwing now; you see nothing in the canoe, equal to ten times the sum now. He founded and nobody but myself ; therefore cease. Take several scholarships in Corpus-Christi College me and the canoe, but don't kill me.' They took in Cambridge, and gave large presents of plate possession of the canoe and the man, and carried to that and other colleges in this university. them to the king. I was kept in irons three He gave 100 volumes to the public library. Ile months ; the king released me and gave me a likewise founded a free-school at Rochdale in slave (woman). I immediately went to the slave Lancashire. He took care to have the sees taken in the canoe, who told me in what manner filled with pious and learned men; and, conMr. Park and all of them had died, and what I sidering the great want of Bibles in many places, have related above. I asked him if he was sure he, with the assistance of other learned men, imnothing had been found in the canoe after its proved the English translation, had it printed on capture; he said that nothing remained in the a large paper, and dispersed through the kingdom. canoe but himself and a sword-belt. I asked This worthy prelate died in 1575, aged seventyhim where the sword-belt was;. be said the king two, and wa: buried in his own chapel at Lamtook it, and had made a girth for his horse with beth.
He was pious without affectation or ausit. Serious doubts have been raised concerning terity, cheerful and contented in the midst of the authenticity of this narrative; but no reason- adversity, and beneficent beyond example. lle able hope can now be entertained that Mr. Park wrote several works; and published those of has not, in some way or other, perished in his four of our best historians; Matthew of Westvoyage down the Niger. An account of his minster, Matthew Paris. Asser's Life of King second journey, so far as his own narrative ex- Alfred, and Thomas Walsingham. He also tended, with a memoir of his life, by Mr. translated the Psalter. This version was printed, Wishaw, was published in 1815.
but without a name, which led the learned Wood PARKER (Henry), lord Morley, a noble au- to attribute it to an obscure poet of the name of thor, who Aourished in the reign of Henry VIII., Keeper. and wrote several works, a list of which may be PARKER (John), an eminent lawyer of the seen in Mr. Walpole's Catalogue of Royal and seventeenth century, who practised at NorNoble Authors, vol. i. He was one of the barons thampton about 1640. Ile was educated in the who signed the memorable letter to pope Clement Temple; and, joining the party of the parliaVII., threatening him with the loss of his su- ment, was made a member of the high court of premacy in England, unless he proceeded to justice in 1649, where he gave sentence against despatch the king's divorce against queen Catha- the three lords, Capel, Holland, and Hamilton,
who were beheaded. During Cromwell's usurPARKER (Matthew), the second protestant pation he was made an assistant committee-man archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Norwich for his county. In 1630 he published a book in
defence of the new government, as a common- spring of 1797. Ile was born at Exeter about wealth, without a king or house of lords. In 1700, and, having received a decent education, June 1055, wher Cromwell was declared pro- entered into the navy, and served during the lector, he was appointed a commissioner for re- American war. On peace taking place le marmoving obstructions at Worcester House in the ried a woman with some property, which he disStrand, and was sworn serjeant at law next day. sipated, and was imprisoned for debt at EdinIn January 1059 he was appointed one of the burgh. Being at length released, he entered on barons of the exchequer by the rump parliament; board the royal fleet at the Nore, as a common but, upon a complaint, was displaced. However, sailor, where he soon diplayed a spirit of insubhe was again regularly made serjeant at liw, on ordination; but acquired the confidence of the the recommendation of chancellor llyde, after men, and, on the mutiny arising, was appointed the Restoration.
their adımıral.' When the revoli was suppressed, PARKER (Samuel), D.D., an English clergy- Urough the prudent management of lord Ilowe, rian, son of the preceding, who became bishop Parker was put in continement, and, being priced of Oxford. He was born September 16-10, it by a court martial at Sheerness, was hanged on Northampton, and educated among the puritans board the Sandwich, to which ship he had bein Northampton; whence, being fit for the uni- longed. His body was afterwards exposed on versity, he was sent to Windham College in Ox- the coast of the isle of Sheppey. He sufferer ford, and admitted in 1659 under a presbyterian June 30th, 1795, displaying great calmness of
Here he led a strict and religious life, mind. and took the degree of A. B. February 28th, 1000. PARKES (Samuel), a late ingenious professor Ipon the Restoration he hesitated which party of chemistry, was born at Stourbridge, in lor10 join; but, continuing publicly to speak against cestershire, in 1759, and educated under Dr. episcopacy, he was discounteuanced by the new Aldintou at Market Llarborough. In 1300 be warden Dr. Blanford, who had been appointed first published hii Chemical Catechisin; of to that office upon the dawn of the Restoratiou which may editions have appeared, and was in 1659. Cpon this be removed 10 Trinity Col- long eminent as a practical chemist. This work here, where, by the advice of Dr. Ralple Ruthi- was followed in 1808 by an Essay on the l'uility Well, then a senior liellow of that society, he was of Chemistry in the Aris and Manufactures; * Tescued from the prejudices of his education, and in 1909 by Rudiments of Chemistry, illuswhich he publicly avowed in print. Jle then trated by examples; an id ridgment of his first became a zealous Anti-puritan, and for many treatise, whicli he was induced to publish, on 10years actel the part of what was then called å count of an aitempt to pirate the work. His true son of the church. In this tempor, having last production was, Chemical Essays, princitaken the degree of V. 1. in 1663, be entered pills relating to the Arts and Manufactures of into holy orders, went to London, and became the British dominions, printed in 1815, in «icht chaplain 10 nobleman, continuing to display
Vir. Parkes was a fellow of the Sohis talents at the expense of his old friends the ciety of Arts, and of various other literary and I'roabyterians, independents, de. In 1005 he philosophical associations, lle died at his house publisheed some philosophical essays, and was in Mecklenbury Square, London, December 233d, clected F.R.S. These essays he dedicated to Sbellon, archbishop of Canterbury, who became PARKTILRST (John), a learned divine and liis patron; and, in 1067, made hin his chaplain. lexicographer, born at London; and educateci lle now left Oxford, and resided at Lanubeth at Clari-llall, Cambridge; of which he was adwith his patron; who, in 1670, made lun arch- mitted fellow in 1751, and took his degrees of deacon of Canterbury. In November 1670 he B. A. and M. A. lle settled at Epsom in Surry, joined the train of William prince of Orange, was the intimate friend of bishop llorne, and who visited Cambridge, and had the decree of uopred the opinions of Hutchinson. D). D. conterred upon him there. Tu Noreler lished, 1. A Greek and English Lexicon, 40.; 2. 1172 he was installed a prebendary of Canter- A llebrew and English Lexicon, 4t0.; both of bury; and was made rector of ickham and which are very useful; 3. An Answer to Dr. Chatham in hent by the archbishop. De was l'riestley on the pre-existence of Christ. He died very obsequions to the court during ihe reign of in 1797. Charles 11.; and, upon the accession of James PARKINSON (John), an eminent English II., he continued the same servile complaisance; botanisi, born in 1567. Ile was the first who and soon reaped the fruits of it in the bisboprie described and figured the subjects of the of Oxforil, to which he was appointed by Jame's Rower garden singly. His Theatrum Botanicum II. in 1686, being allowed to hold the arch- contained a more copious history of medicinal deaconry of Canterbury in commendam. Tie plants than any former publication. Wis likewise made i privy counsellor; and, by PARKINSONIj, so called in honor of the a royal mandamus, president of Magdalen Col. above botanist; it sous of the monogynia order lege in Oxford. He died in Magdalen ('ollere, and decandria class of plants: natural order March 2011, 1687. Ple sent a Discourse to thirty-third, lomentacca : CAL. quinquetid : peJames, persuading him to embrace thie Protes- tals five, all oval except the louest, which is relant religion, with a letter to the same purpose, niform ; style none; the legumen moniliform. which was printed in London in 1690, 410. We know but one piecies, which is very common
PARKER (Richard), an English sailor, the leader in the Spanish West Indies, and has lately been of a dangerous mutiny which took placeon board introduced into the English settlements, for the the squadron of lord Bridport, in the eventful Deuty and swetuery of its tioners In the
countries where it grows naturally it rises to a tree The true use of parliaments is very excellent; and of twenty or more feet high, and bears long be often called, and continued as long as is necesslender bunches of yellow flowers, which have a
. most agreeable sweet scent.
To the three first titles of the two houses, or lines, PARLE, n. s. Fr. parler. Conver- and conquest, were added two more; the authorities
ገ Par’LEY, v. a. &n. s. ) sation;
parliamentary and papal. negociation;
I thought the right way of parliaments the most talk; oral treaty (obsolete): to parley is to treat or discuss a thing orally : 'as a substantive it is safe for my crown, as best pleasing to my people.
king Charles. a modern word for parle.
Many things, that obtain as common law, had Seek rather by parley to recover them than by the their original by parliamenuury acts or constitutions,
Sidney. made in writings by the king, lords, and commons. A Turk desired the captain to send some, with whom they might more conveniently parley.
These are mob readers : if Virgil and Martial A nolles's History,
stood for parliament men, we know who would carry Of all the gentlemen, it.
Dryden. That every day with purle encounter me,
Credit to run ten millions in debt, without parliaIn thy opinion, which is worthiest love? mentary security, I think to be dangerous and illegal. Shak peare.
Suft. Our trumpet called you to this general parle. We assemble parliaments and councils, to have the
. benefit of their collected wisdom; but we necessaSummon a parley, we will talk with him. . rily have, at the same time, the inconveniencies of
The bishop, by a parle, is, with a show their collected passions, prejudices, and private inOf combination, cunningly betrayed. Daniel.
Franklin, Parley and holding intelligence with guilt in the The Parliament is the grand assembly of most trivial things, he pronounced as treason to our- the three states of this kingdom, summoned toselves, as well as unto God.
Fell. gether by the king's authority, to consider of No gentle means could be essayed ;
matters relating to the public welfare, particularly 'Twas beyond parley when the siege was laid. to enact and repeal laws. The original or first
Dryden. institution of parliament lies so far hidden in Force never yet a generous heart did gain ; the dark ages of antiquity, that the tracing of it We yield on parley, but are stormed in vain. Id.
out is equally difficult and uncertain. The word Why meet we thus like wrangling advocates, parliament is, comparatively, of modern date; To urge the justice of our cause with words ? derived from the French parler, and signifying I hate this parle ; 'tis tame : if we must meet, the place where they met and spoke, or con ferred Give me my arms.
Rowe's Ambitious Step-mother. together. It was first applied to general assemYet when some better fated youth
blies of the states under Louis VII. in France, Shall with his am'rous parley move thee, about the middle of the twelfth century. But Reflect one moment on his truth,
it is certain that long before the Norman conWho, dying thus, persists to love thee. Prior. Let us resolve never to have any purley with our
quest all matters of importance were debated lusts, but to make some considerable progress in our
and settled in the great councils of the realm ; a
practice which seems to have been universal repentance.
Calamy. He parleys with her awhile, as imagining she would among the northern nations, particularly the advise him to proceed.
Broome. Germans, and carried by them into all the Strange is thy form, but more thy words are countries of Europe, which they over-ran at the strange
dissolution of the Roman empire. Relics of Fearful it seems to hold this pirley with thee. this constitution, under various modifications Tell me thy race and country.
and changes, are still to be met with in the diets Parley, in war, is a conference with an of Poland, Germany, and Sweden, and formerly enemy. Hence to beat or sound a parley, is to in the assembly of the states in France; for what give a signal for holding such a conference by was there lately called the parliament was only beat of drum, or sound of trumpet.
supreme court of justice, consisting of the PAR’LIAMENT, n. . & adj. ? Fr. parle- peers, certain dignified ecclesiastics, and judges ; PARLIAMENTARY.
ment ; Ital. & which was neither in practice, nor supposed to Span. parlamento ; Barb. Lat. parliamentum ; 'a be in theory, a general council of the realm. parlare la mente, says Minsheu, after Coke, to In England, this general council hath been speak judiciously his mind !' A high court of held immemorially, under the several names of debate and appeal on public affairs; in the michel synoth, or great council; michel gemote, United Kingdom it signifies the assembly of king, or great meetiny; and more frequently wittena lords, and commons, the court of all others the gemote, or the meeting of wise men. Ii was also highest, and of greatest authority': parliamentary styled in Latin, commune concilium regni, magis, enacted by, pertaining to, or customary in, num concilium regis, curia magna, conventus parliament.
magnatum vel procerum, assisa generalis, and A member of parliament is originally to be tender sometimes communitas regni Anglia. We have of his own liberty, that other men may the better the kingdom, to make new laws, and to amend
instances of its meeting to order the affairs of trust him with theirs. The king is fled to London,
the old; or, as Fleta expresses it
, novis injuriis To call a present court of parliament.
emersis nova constituere remedia, so early as the Shakspeare.
reign of Ina, king of the West Saxons; Ossa, Far be the thought of this from Henry's heart, king of the Mercians; and Ethelbert, king of To make a shambles of the parliament house. hent, in the several kingdoms of the heptarchy.