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7. Occasion of this essay.

13. By this, they are not dis.

8. What idea stands for.

tinguished from other

knowable truths.


14. If coming to the use of

No innate principles in the mind,

reason were the time of

and particularly no innate spe-

their discovery, it would
culative principles.

not prove them innate.

15, 16. The steps by which the

mind attains several truths,
1. The way shown how we come 17. Assenting as soon as pro-
by any knowledge, sufficient

posed and understood,

to prove it not innate.

proves them not innate.

2. General assent, the

great ar. 18. If such an assent be a


mark of innate, then that

3. Universal consent proves no-

one and two are equal

thing innate.

to three ; that sweetness

-4. What is, is; and, it is im.

is not bitterness; and a

possible for the same thing

thousand the like, must be

io be, and not to be; not


universally assented to.

19. Sach less general propofi.


tions known before these

not their internal prin.
universal maxims.

20. One and one equal to

8. Conscience no proof of
two, &c. not general, nor

any innate moral rule.
useful, answered.

9. Instances of enormities
21. These maxims not being

practised without re.
known sometimes till pro-

posed, proves them not in-

10. Men have contrary prace

tical principles.

22. Implicitly known before 11-13. Whole nations reject sea

proposing, signifies, that

veral moral rules.

the mind is capable of :4. Those who maintain in.

understanding them, or

nate practical principles,
else signiftes nothing.

tell us not what they are.

23. The argument of assenting 15.-19. Lord Herbert's innate

on first hearing, is upon a

principles examined.

false supposition of no pre- 20. Obj. Innate principles

cedent teaching

may be corrupted, an-

24. Not innate, because not


universally assented to.

21. Contrary principles in

25. These maxims not the first

the world.


22-26. How men commonly

26. And so not innate.

come by their principles.

27. Not innate, because they 27. Principles must be exa.

appear least, where what


is innate, shows itself


28. Recapitulation.


Other considerations about innate
CHA P. lll.

principles, both speculative and

No innate practical principles. practical.


1. No moral principles so 1. Principles not innate, un.
clear and so generally re-

less their ideas be innate.
ceived as the fore-menti. 2, 3. Ideas, especially those be.
oned speculative maxims.

longing to principles, not
2. Faith and justice not own.

born with children.
ed as principles by all 4, 5. Identity, an idea not in.

3. Obj. Though men deny 6. Whole and part, not in.
them in their practice, yet

nate ideas.
they admit them in their 7. Idea of worship not in.
thoughts, answered.

4. Moral rules need a proof, 81. Idea of God, not innate.
ergo, not innate.

12. Suitable to God's good-
5. Instance in keeping com.

ness, that all men should

have an idea of him,
6. Virtue generally approved,

therefore naturally im-
not because innate, but be.

printed by him ;
cause profitable.


7. Men's actions convince us, 13-16. Ideas of God, various in

that the rule of virtue is

different men.

a 2



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C H AY. I.

Of ideas in general.


1. Idea is the object of


2. All ideas come from sen.

sation or reflection.

3. The objects of sensation

one source of ideas.

4. The operations of our

minds, the other source

of them.

5. All our idcas are of the

one or the other of these,

6. Observable in children.

7. Men are differently fur.

nished with these, accord.
ing to the different objects

they converse with.

8. Ideas of reficction later,

because they need atten-


9. The soul begins to have

ideas, when it begins to


10. The soul thinks not al.

ways; for this wann


11. It is not always conscious

of it.

12. If a leeping man thinks-

without knowing it, the

sleeping and waking man

are two persons.

13. Impossible to convince

those that sleep without

dreaming, that they think.

14. That men dream without

remembering it, in vain


15. Upon this hypothesis, the

thoughts of a sleeping man

ought to be most rational.

16. On this hypothesis the

soul must have ideas not

derived from sensation or

reflection, of which there

is no appearance

17. If I think when I know

it not, no body else can

know it.

18. How knows any one that

the soul always thinks ?

For if it be not a self-evi.

dent proposition, it needs


19. That a man should be busy

in thinking, and yet not

retain it the next mo.

ment, very improbable.

20--23. No ideas but from sensa.

tion, or reflection, evi.

dent, if we observe chil.


24. The



c H A P. VI.

Of simple ideas of reflection,


1. Simple ideas are the opera.

tions of the mind about

its other ideas,

2. The idea of perception,

and idea of willing, we

have from reflection.

1. It is the first simple idea

of reflection.

2—4. Perception is only when

the mind receives the im.

5, 6. Children, tho they have

ideas in the womb, have

none innate.


Which ideas first, is not


8-10. Ideas



know not, no proof against
4. Comparirg.

space without body.

5. Brures comparé but im. 19, 20. Substance and accidents


of little use in philo.

6. Compounding.


7. Brutes compound but 21. A vacuum bevond the uts


mose bounds of body.

8. Naning

22. The power of annihilation

9. Abstraction.

proves a vacuum.

10, 11. Brutes abstract not.

23: Motion proves a vacuum,
12, 13. Idiots and mad men.

24. The ideas of space and

14. Method.

body distinct.

15. These are the beginnings 25, 26. Extension being insepara.
of human knowledge.

ble from body, proves it

16. Appeal to experience,

not the same,

17. Dark room.

27. Idcas

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