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idea, I mean such an one as consists of a determinate number of certain simple or less complex ideas, joined in such a proportion and situation, as the mind has before its view, and sees in itself, when that idea is present in it, or should be present in it, when a man gives a name to it: I say, should be; because it is not every one, not perhaps any one, who is so careful of his language, as to use no word, till he views in his mind the precise determined idea, which he resolves to make it the sign of. The want of this is the cause of no small obscurity and confusion in men's thoughts and discourses.

I know there are not words enough in any language, to answer all the variety of ideas that enter into men's discourses and reasonings. But this hinders not, but that when any one uses any term,


may have in his mind a determined idea, which he makes it the sign of, and to which he should keep it stead. ily annexed, during that present discourse. Where he does not, or cannot do this, he in vair pretends to clear or distinct ideas : it is plain his are not so‘; and therefore there can be expected nothing but obscurity and confusion, where such terms are made use of, which have not such a precise determination.

Upon this ground I have thought determined ideas a way of speaking less liable to mistakes, than clear and distinct; and where men have got such determined ideas of all that they reason, inquire, or argue about, they will find a great part of their doubts and disputes at an end. The greatest part of the questions and controversies that perplex mankind, depending on the doubtful and uncertain use of words, or(which is the same) indetermined ideas, which they are made to stand for; I have made choice of these terms to signify, 1. Some immediate object of the mind, which it perceives and bas before it, distinct from the sound it uses as a sign of it. 2. That this idea, thus determined, i. e. which the mind has in itself, and

knows, and sees there, be determined without any change to that name, and that name determined to that precise idea. If men had such determined ideas in their inquiries and discourses, they would both discern how far their own inquiries and discourses went, and avoid the greatest part of the disputes and wranglings they have with others.

Besides this, the bookseller will think it necessary I should advertise the reader, that there is an addition of two chapters wholly new; the one of the association of ideas, the other of enthusiasm. These, with some other larger additions never before printed, he has engaged to print by themselves after the same manner, and for the same purpose, as was done when this essay had the second impression.

In the sixth edition, there is very little added or altered; the greatest part of what is new, is contained in the 21st chapter of the second book, which any one, if he thinks it worth while, may, with a very little labour, transcribe into the margin of the former edition.

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14. Those who maintain in-
25. The argument of assent-

nate practical principles,
ing on first hearing, is

tell us not what they are.
upon a false supposition 15—19. Lord Herbert's inuate
of no precedent teaching,

principles exainined.

24. Not innate, because not 20. Obj. Innate principles

universally assented 10.

may be corrupted, an-

25. These maximns not the


first known.

21. Contrary principles in

26. And so not innate.

the world.

27. Not innate, because they 22-26. How men commonly

appear least, where what

come by their principles.

is innate, shows itself 27. Principles must be exa-



28. Recapitulation.



Other considerations about innate

No innate practical principles. principles, both speculative and



1. No moral principles so


clear and so generally re- 1. Principles uot innate, une

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less their ideas be innate.

supposed innate.
%, 3. Ideas, especially those 18. Idea of substance not ine
belonging to principles,

not born with children. 19. No propositions can be
4,5. Identity an idea not in. innate, since no ideas are

6. Whole and part, not in- 20. No ideas are remember-
nate ideas.

ed, till after they have
7. Idea of worship not in-

been introduced.

21. Principles not innate, be-
8–11. Idea of God, not innate.

cause of little use or lit-
12. Suitable to God's good-

tle certainty.
uess, that all men should 22. Difference of men's dis
have an idea of him,

coveries depends upon
therefore naturally im-

the different applications
printed by him ; answer.

of their faculties.

23. Men must think and
13—16. Ideas of God, various in

know for themselves.
different men.

24. Whence the opinion of
17. If the idea of God be not

innate principles.
inpate, no other can be

25. Conclusion





9. The soul begins to have
of ideas iv general.

ideas, when it begins to



1. Idea is the object of 10. The soul thinks not al-


ways; for this wants

2. All ideas come from sen-


sation or reflection.

11. It is not always conscious

3. The objects of sensation

of it.

one source of ideas.

12. If a sleeping man thinks

4. The operations of our

without knowing it, the

minds, the other source

sleeping and waking man

of them.

are two persons.

5. All our ideas are of the 13. Impossible to convince

one or the other of these.

those that sleep without

6. Observable in children.

dreaming that they think.

7. Men are differently fur- 14. That men dream without

nished with these, ac-

remembering it, in vain

cording to the different


objects they converse 15. Upon this hypothesis, the


thoughts of a sleeping

8. Ideas of reflection later,

man ought to be most ra

because they need atten-


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