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and increase, or advance, their felicity, so far as human nature is capable of it, both in a particular and general relation; rather than the contrary, or discord, rebellion and revolt, so often advocated, pursued, and in the end, unhappily experienced, under the plausible name and falfe appearance, of melioration.

But how muchsoever the recommendation and Original extension of unity, concord and amity, with a due

" happiness submission, in civil society, may be contrary to the and misery ambition, and selfish views, of an independent and it

' fame. rebellious spirit, in any age, or country, yet it is most certain that as the former constituted the state of original, and most complete, felicity, so the latter occasioned the contrary; and cannot, in the nature of things, do otherwise;—and that human happiness may be much further increased, or aug. mented, both in an individual and collective capacity, than either idleness or wickedness will permit many to believe, or think possible, the province of Example of Pennsylvania has afforded a very signal example, le and incontestible proof, to the admiration of strangers; and doubtless far beyond the credibility of many, who are not sufficiently acquainted with the early, as well as the later state of the country.

To conclude, as the world is said to have been How good formed out of a chaos, and that order sprung from disorder, by the effect of Omnipotence; fo, in the and restora, rise of this province, appears a remarkable instance od. of happy consequences, from apparent unhappy causes;--rational liberty, with an equal participation of natural and civil rights, and religious privileges, with the glorious effects, have risen out of oppression, persecution and bigotry:-But, as the abuse of the former has always introduced the latter, sooner or later; and as human nature ever remains to be the same, so the reversing of those en, joyments continues to be no less incident to the hu. man race, than it was in former ages of the world;


and their preservation depends as much upon the wisdom and conduct of the possessors of them, as their restoration will do, on means similar to those, which raised, and so long preserved, the happy state of the province of Pennsylvania.

Philadelphia, 1797,


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The parentage, birth and education of William Penn, with the time
and manner of his embracing the religion of the people called
Quakers, &c.

In the account of the religious system and manners of the Quakersy
are comprehended:
1. The time, motive and manner of their first rise, and becoming

a religious society. 2. Their first and chief principle, &c. 3. Their wor:hip and ministry, with some of their chief and particular

Their other tenets, doctrines, practices and customs, more pecu-
liar to them than to other people, are ranged under the following
heads, viz.

1. Their jufite, veracity and true Christian fortitudes
2. Their temperance and moderation.
3. Their charity and loving one another.

4. Under the first of these heads are comprised :
Their disuse of flattering titles, and their not respecting persons, &c.
Their using the plain and true speech of thou and thee, to a single

person, &c.
Their disuse of the common falutations, &c.
Their non-observance of holy-days, faf-days, &c.
Their manner of naming the months, and days of the week, &c.
Their refusing to pay tithes, priest.' wages, &c.
Their stri&tly paying the government taxes, dues, &c.
Their not suffering the Negro or save-trade among them.
Their refusing to swear on any occasion.
Their fortitude, in valiantly suffering for their testimony:

5. Under the second head are,
Their disuse of gaming, Sports, plays, &c.
Their avoiding superfluity, vizi

In their diet and discourse.
In their furniture and apparel.
At their births, marriages and funerals.

6. Under


18 Contents of the Introduction.

6. Under the third head are represented:
Their loving one another, and refraining from law-suits, among tkem.

Their loving enemies, and not fighting, but suffering, &c.
Their charity to the poor :- With some conclusions on divers of these

things, from R. Barclay.
7. Their marriages, births, burials and discipline, from W. Penn; con-

cluded with some further hints of the temper, and general difpo.
sition of mind, and of the practice of this people, in early time,
from W. Penn, and W. Edmundson.
Further account of the life of William Penn, continued till about the

time of the grant and settlement of Pennsylvania.


1. First European discoveries of the different parts of America, by

Spain, Portugal and England, from the year 1492 to 1497.

2. Summary of the ancient Virginia; and of the Dutch and Swede's

pretensions to what was called New Netherland by the former, and

New Swedeland by the latter :-With a sketch of the first settlement,

government and revolutions of these people on the Delaware bay and

river ;-Including some account of the Maryland grand to the Lord

Baltimore, in 1632 ; and of the reduction of the Dutch and Swedes

under the British government in 1664.

3. First rise of New-Fersey, in 1664; and some account of the En.

glish administration by the governors of N. York, over the country on
Delaware, till it was retaken by the Dutch, in 1673 ;-—and of the go-
vernment there, after it was surrendered to England.

4. Division of New-Jersey into East and Wes New-Jersey, in 1676;

whereby W. Penn first became concerned in the latter ;-With a fum.

mary of the first settlement and public transactions of Weft New-Fcrsey,

by the Quakers, &c. continued from the division of the province, in

1676, till about the time of W. Penn's obtaining the grant of Pennsyl-

vania, in 1681, &c.

5. A sketch of the religious state of West N. Jersey, about that time,

with some further hints of its general situation, or state, till the fur-

render of the respective proprietary governments to the crown, in


Note, When the nonths are mentioned in their numerical order, in the following

history, Marchis inderstood to be the first month of the year, before the change

of the style, in I-52; after which the year commenced on the first of January.

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Prior to his founding the Province of Pennsylvania ;


A general and comprehensive view of the rise, princia ples, religious system and practice, or manners, of the people called QUAKERS, who first settled

the province, under his government.

T 1 HE wisdom of former ages, when transmitted, Office and in writing, to posterity, is an inestimable treasure; use of hisa but the actions of illustrious and virtuous persons," in the same manner exhibited, is still more beneficial: by the former our judgments are rightly informed, and our minds brought into a proper way of thinking; by the latter we are animated to an imitation; and while the excellency of noble examples is displayed before our understandings, our minds are inspired with a love of virtue. This appears to be the office of history; by which every succeeding age may avail itself of the wisdom, and, even, of the folly, of the preceding, and become Wiser and happier by a proper application. Thu ough

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