Breast MRI: Fundamentals and Technical Aspects

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 14, 2007 - Medical - 254 pages

Breast MRI has emerged as a valuable adjunct to the conventional imaging modalities in the detection of primary and recurrent breast cancer. Yet, most radiologists who rely on MRI do not have knowledge of the fundamentals so essential to achieving and maintaining high image quality.

With a focus on the basic imaging principles of breast MRI rather than on mathematical equations, this book takes a practical approach to imaging protocols that helps radiologists increase their diagnostic effectiveness. The text walks the reader through the basics of MRI, making it especially accessible to beginners. From a detailed outline of equipment prerequisites for obtaining high quality breast MRI to instructions on how to optimize image quality, expanded discussions on how to obtain optimized dynamic information, and explanations of good and bad imaging techniques, the book covers the topics that are most relevant to performing breast MRI.

By presenting the key aspects of breast MRI in straightforward terms and with clear images, this practical book benefits all practitioners seeking to increase their working knowledge and competence in breast MRI. It fills an important gap in the literature and is also of value to residents preparing for the diagnostic radiology boards.

 

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Contents

Fundamentals of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
1
Subatomic Particles
3
The Atom
4
Magnetic Dipole Moments
6
Nuclear Magnetic Moments
9
Tissue Magnetization
10
Magnetic Fields
13
Precession and Magnetic Resonance
14
A New Adverse Event of Gadoliniumchelates
122
Sensitivity and Specificity of Contrastenhanced Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
123
Timing of Pulse Sequences After Contrast Injection
125
Temporal Resolution in Contrastenhanced Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
126
Tradeoffs Between Adequate Temporal Resolution and Adequate Spatial Resolution
129
Obtaining High Temporal Resolution and High Spatial Resolution Contrastenhanced Studies
130
Chapter Takehome Points
131
References
132

Measuring the Magnetic Resonance Signal
15
The Basic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment
16
References
17
Tissue Relaxation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
19
T1 Relaxation
21
T2 Relaxation
23
Distinguishing T2 and T2
25
The Physical Basis of Relaxation Times
28
Chapter Takehome Points
29
Spatial Resolution in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
30
Radiofrequency Transmitter Coils
33
Radiofrequency Receiver Coils
34
Magnetic Gradients
35
Slice Selection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
36
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pulse Sequence
38
Forming a Magnetic Resonance Image
41
Voxel Size
42
Chapter Takehome Points
44
References
45
The Spinecho Pulse Sequence
47
Signal Dependence on TR and TE in Spinecho Imaging
51
Contrast in Spinecho Imaging
53
Acquisition Times in Spinecho Imaging
56
Chapter Takehome Points
58
Gradient Echo Sequences and 3D Imaging
59
The Gradientecho Pulse Sequence Diagram
60
Variants of Gradientecho Imaging
63
Signal Dependence on TR TE and q in Spoiled Gradientecho Imaging
64
Contrast in Spoiled Gradientecho Pulse Sequences
66
Steadystate Gradientecho Imaging
67
Total Acquisition Time in 2D Gradientecho Imaging
68
3D Gradientecho Imaging
69
Chapter Takehome Points
72
References
73
Fastspin Echo Echo Planar Inversion Recovery and ShortTl Inversion Recovery Imaging
74
Echoplanar Imaging
80
Inversion Recovery and ShortT1 Inversion Recovery Imaging
83
Real and Magnitude Reconstructions ofIR Spinecho Signal
86
Short T1 Inversion Recovery Imaging
87
Chapter Takehome Points
89
References
91
Signal Noise SignaltoNoise and ContrasttoNoise Ratios
93
Noise in a Magnetic Resonance Image
94
System Parameters Affecting Noise
99
SignaltoNoise Ratios
100
Effect of Magnetic Field Strength on SignaltoNoise Ratios
101
Effect of Userselectable Image Acquisition Parameters on SignaltoNoise Ratios
102
Effect of Slice Thickness on SignaltoNoise Ratios
103
Effect of the Number of Frequencyencoding Steps
104
Effect of the Number of Phaseencoding Steps
105
SignaltoNoise Ratios in 2D Planar Imaging
106
SignaltoNoise Ratios in 3D Volume Imaging
107
The Rose Model5
108
Effect of Image Addition on Signal Noise SignaltoNoise Ratios and ContrasttoNoise Ratios
109
Effect of Image Subtraction on Signal Noise SignaltoNoise Ratios and ContrasttoNoise Ratios
110
Chapter Takehome Points
111
Contrast Agents in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
112
The Physiologic Basis of Contrast Enhancement
118
Dosage of Gadoliniumchelated Contrast Agents
120
Possible Adverse Events Resulting from Gadoliniumchelates
121
Suggested Reading
134
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acquisition Protocols
135
Precontrast T1weighted Nonfatsaturated Pulse Sequence
136
Precontrast T2weighted Sequences
137
Contrastenhanced Sequences
139
Current Approaches to Contrastenhanced Scanning
141
Magnetic Field Strength of at Least 15 T and High Magnetic Field Homogeneity
142
3D Gradientecho T1weighted Pulse Sequences for Contrastenhanced Imaging
144
Pixel Sizes of Less than 1 mm in Each inplane Direction
146
Proper Selection of the Phaseencoding Direction to Minimize Artifacts Across the Breasts
147
A Total 3D Fourier Transform Acquisition Time for Both Breasts of Less than 2 Minutes
149
Meeting Temporal and Spatial Resolution Requirements in 3D Gradientecho Imaging
150
Timesaving Measures in 3D Gradientecho Imaging
151
PartialFourier in the Sliceselect Direction or Slice Interpolation
153
Parallel Imaging
156
Optimizing Contrastenhanced Studies
161
Examples of Contrastenhanced Scanning Protocols Meeting Temporal and Spatial Requirements
162
Examples of Deficient Contrastenhanced Protocols
163
Chapter Takehome Points
168
Image Postprocessing Protocols
171
Image Subtraction and Reregistration
172
Maximum Intensity Projections of Subtracted Data
174
Multiplanar Image Reconstruction
177
Creation of Enhancement Maps Based on Multiple Time Point Acquisitions
179
Creation of Timeenhancement Curves for Suspicious Enhancing Lesions
182
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Computeraided Diagnosis Workstations
184
Chapter Takehome Points
185
Artifacts and Errors in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Artifacts
187
Aliasing Artifacts
190
Truncation Artifacts
193
Chemical Shift Artifacts
194
Metallic Artifacts
196
Radiofrequency Transmission Artifacts
198
Reconstruction Artifacts
200
Other Randomly Occurring Image Artifacts
201
Other Equipment and User Errors
202
Poor Magnetic Field Uniformity or Magnetic Gradient Linearity
203
Radiofrequency Receiver Coil Problems
204
Chapter Takehome Points
206
References
207
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety and Patient Considerations
208
Static Magnetic Fields
210
Radiofrequency Fields
215
Patients Visitors or Site Personnel with Metallic Implants and Devices
216
Pregnant Patients or Technologists Pregnant Patients
217
Pregnant Technologists
218
Chapter Takehome Points
219
New Developments in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
221
Dedicated Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems
223
Dedicated Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Table and Coils
224
Novel Techniques to Improve the Specificity of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
225
Diffusionweighted Breast Imaging
226
Perfusion Imaging of the Breast
227
Choline Peak in Hydrogen Spectroscopy
228
Combining Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques to Gain Specificity
231
Spectroscopic Imaging
232
Chapter Takehome Points
234
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patient and NonPatient Screening Forms
237
Index
243
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About the author (2007)

Dr. Edward Hendrick, Ph.D., FACR, has played a pivotal role in improving the quality of mammorgraphy worldwide as well as making important contributions to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. His groundbreaking work with the American College of Radiology (ACR) helped establish the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program, which lead to the Mammography Quality Standards Act of 1992 - legislation enaced to ensure mammography facilities offer patients the best medical technology and care. He is recognized as a national leader in advancing breast imaging and cancer detection techniques.

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