## Computer-Controlled Systems: Theory and Design, Third EditionPractically all modern control systems are based upon microprocessors and complex microcontrollers that yield high performance and functionality. This volume focuses on the design of computer-controlled systems, featuring computational tools that can be applied directly and are explained with simple paper-and-pencil calculations. The use of computational tools is balanced by a strong emphasis on control system principles and ideas. Extensive pedagogical aids include worked examples, MATLAB macros, and a solutions manual (see inside for details). The initial chapter presents a broad outline of computer-controlled systems, followed by a computer-oriented view based on the behavior of the system at sampling instants. An introduction to the design of control systems leads to a process-related view and coverage of methods of translating analog designs to digital control. Concluding chapters explore implementation issues and advanced design methods. |

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Computer-Controlled Systems: Theory and Design, Third Edition Karl J Åström,Björn Wittenmark Limited preview - 2013 |

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algorithm analog approximation Assume calculations characteristic polynomial closed-loop poles closed-loop system coefﬁcients command signals computer-controlled systems Consider the system continuous-time system control law control signal control system D-A converter deﬁned deﬁnite delay described Determine difference equation Diophantine equation discrete-time system discussed in Sec double integrator dynamic system eigenvalues error estimate factor feedback feedforward Figure ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁrst-order ﬂow follows given gives implemented inﬂuence input signal input-output inside the unit introduce Kalman ﬁlter load disturbances loop loss function matrix measurement noise method minimum-variance control modiﬁed Nyquist frequency obtained operator optimal oscillation output parameters pole-placement prediction pulse pulse-transfer function quantization rad/s reachable response Riccati equation sampled system sampling instants sampling interval sampling period shown in Fig simulation solution speciﬁcations spectral density stable state-space steady-state stochastic process Theorem transfer function transform unit disc values variables variance white noise x(kh z-transform zero-order hold