Epiphyseal Growth Plate Fractures

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 15, 2007 - Medical - 914 pages
The subspeciality of Pediatric Orthopedics is distin- common of which is fracture. This textbook is an guished from adult orthopedics in many ways. The overview of fractures of the physis, and is divided into two most prominent differences are the small size of three parts: general considerations, anatomic sites of the patients and the presence of growth plates (phy- fracture, and premature partial physeal arrest, the ses). Physes may be injured in various ways, the most most common and onerous complication. iX preface Textbooks are the medium where knowledge is accu- speaking Mayo orthopedic residents, and some recent mulated, evaluated, and stored, and where, hopefully articles which have English abstracts. I have pers- wisdom grows. Assembling facts, made known by ally read all the English articles and abstracts incl- preceding observers, investigators, and authors, ad- ed in the references. In each, I have tried to find at vances the science. Through their effort and insight, least one bit of new, confirmatory, or contrary inf- we benefit. mation or insight. I have avoided citing a bit of infor- The creation of any medical textbook begins with a mation attributed to one author by another author. labor of love, but rapidly takes on a life of its own. Excluded are abstracts followed by published articles, This text was no exception and has been a “work in identical articles published in multiple publications, progress” over my entire 30-year practice of pediatric and works of obvious plagiarism.
 

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Contents

Complications
507
D Separation of the Distal Humeral Epiphysis Anatomy
509
Epidemiology
511
Management
512
Anatomy and Growth Complications
513
Epidemiology
514
Evaluation Complications
517
References
518

Ogden 1981 Shapiro 1982
27
Anatomy Fracture Type Age and Site Prognosis Epidemiology Complications
28
A Type 1 Fracture Anatomy
30
Classification
32
Epidemiology
33
Evaluation
35
Complications
44
Classification
49
Epidemiology
50
Management
51
Complications
56
Classification Epidemiology Evaluation
58
Management
59
Complications
64
Anatomy
66
Epidemiology
67
Evaluation
68
Complications
71
Anatomy Classification
72
Evaluation Management
73
Complications
74
Anatomy Classification Epidemiology
77
Management
84
Complications
85
References
90
Epidemiology Introduction Literature Review
93
The Olmsted County Study
99
Conclusions
113
References
114
Evaluation Physical Examination History Imaging
117
References
128
Management Goals of Treatment
131
Type of Fracture
133
Management Choices
134
Additional Concepts
136
References
138
Prognosis Age Site Severity of Injury
141
Treatment
142
Remodeling Classification Authors Perspective References
143
Complications Epidemiology of Complications
145
I Complications Occurring At or Near the Time of Fracture
150
B Compartment Syndrome
154
C Irreducible Fracture
158
D Nerve Impairment
162
F Complete Physeal Arrest
169
G Nonunion
170
H Malunion
176
I Ischemic Necrosis
180
J Overgrowth
183
K Synostosis
184
L Heterotopic Ossification
187
M Refracture
191
O Pathologic Fracture
194
References
196
Phalanges of the Hand Anatomy and Growth
201
Epidemiology
203
Evaluation
208
Management
215
Complications
222
References
225
Distal Radius Anatomy and Growth
227
Classification
229
Epidemiology
232
Evaluation
235
Management
237
Complications
258
A Stress Injury Gymnasts Wrist Anatomy
263
Epidemiology
266
Management
268
Authors Perspective References
269
Anatomy and Growth
274
Epidemiology
276
Evaluation
279
Management
295
Complications
303
Authors Perspective
307
Anatomy Classification Epidemiology
311
Evaluation
312
Management
319
Complications
324
Authors Perspective
333
Anatomy
338
Epidemiology
339
Evaluation
340
Management
343
Authors Perspective
349
C Triplane Fractures History
353
Anatomy
355
Classification
357
Evaluation
362
Management
371
Complications
380
Authors Perspective
383
References
384
Distal Fibula Anatomy and Growth
389
Epidemiology
390
Evaluation
392
Complications
396
References
397
Metacarpal Anatomy and Growth
399
Epidemiology
401
Evaluation
402
Complications
405
Authors Perspective
407
References
410
Phalanges of the Foot Anatomy and Growth
411
Epidemiology
414
Management Complications
415
References
418
Anatomy and Growth
422
Classification
425
Epidemiology
426
Evaluation
428
Fracture Types by Age1
434
Management
437
Classification
440
Evaluation
443
Management
448
Complications
456
B Intercondylar Anatomy
479
Epidemiology
486
Management
487
C Medial Condyle Anatomy and Growth
493
Epidemiology Evaluation
494
Management
503
Distal Ulna Anatomy and Growth
525
Evaluation Epidemiology
527
Management
531
Complications
534
Authors Perspective
542
References
546
Proximal Humerus Anatomy and Growth
549
Epidemiology Evaluation
553
Management
559
Complications
575
Authors Perspective
578
Anatomy Classification Epidemiology Evaluation
581
Complications
582
Authors Perspective Anatomy and Growth
584
Epidemiology
585
Management
586
Authors Perspective C Stress Injury Little Leaguers Shoulder Anatomy
589
Evaluation Management
590
Authors Perspective References
591
Distal Femur Anatomy and Grow
595
Epidemiology
598
Evaluation
603
Management
608
Complications
627
A Birth Fractures Anatomy Classification Epidemiology
634
Evaluation
635
Management
639
Authors Perspective References
640
Metatarsals Anatomy and Growth
643
Classification
644
Evaluation Management Complications
647
References
650
Proximal Tibia Anatomy and Growth
651
Classification
655
Evaluation
659
Management
661
Complications
681
A Proximal Tibial Stress Injury
686
References
691
Proximal Radius Anatomy and Growth
695
Epidemiology Literature Review Head and Neck
696
Evaluation
699
Management
700
Complications
718
References
731
Proximal Ulna Anatomy and Growth
733
Classification
736
Epidemiology
737
Evaluation
739
Management
744
Authors Perspective A Stress Injury Anatomy
745
Epidemiology Evaluation Management
746
References
747
Proximal Clavicle Anatomy and Growth
749
Epidemiology Evaluation
750
Management
751
Authors Perspective References
753
Pelvis Triradiate Cartilage Anatomy and Growth
755
Classification
756
Evaluation
757
Management
759
Complications
765
Authors Perspective
766
References
767
Distal Clavicle Classification Evaluation Epidemiology Anatomy and Growth
769
Management
770
References
772
Anatomy and Growth
773
Classification
776
Management
778
Complications
785
Anatomy Classification Epidemiology Authors Perspective
786
Evaluation
787
Complications Authors Perspective
788
References
789
Proximal Fibula Anatomy and Growth
791
Classification
792
Management Complications Evaluation
793
References
795
Spine Vertebral Physeal Endplate Anatomy and Growth
797
Epidemiology
799
Classification Complications Authors Perspective A Cervical Spine Anatomy and Growth Epidemiology Evaluation
802
Anatomy and Growth Management Complications Classification
803
Evaluation Management Complications References
804
Ribs References
807
Etiology Anatomy
811
Influence of Gender Influence of Age Influence of Site
813
Influence of Fracture Type
814
Influence of Treatment
815
Incomplete Partial Physeal Bar
817
Prevention
820
References
822
Assessment Clinical Examination Imaging Studies
825
Limb Length Measurements
827
Location Area and Contour
833
Classification of Bars
842
State of Maturity
844
References
845
Management General Treatment Alternatives
849
Physis Involved Age of Patient
850
Authors Perspective References
851
Physeal Bar Excision History
853
Experimental Studies in Animals
854
Surgical Technique
855
Interposition Materials
860
Postoperative Care
863
Followup
872
Complications
876
The Mayo Clinic Experience1
877
References
882
Physeal Distraction Introduction
885
Procedure
886
Distraction of a Physis with a Bar
887
with Concurrent Bar Excision Physeal Distraction Followed by Bar Excision Bar Excision Followed by Physeal Distraction Complications
888
References
890
Physeal Cartilage Transplantation Introduction Autograft Transplantation of the End of a Bone
893
Autograft Transplantation of the Physis Alone
894
Allograft Transplantation
895
Authors Perspective References
896
Spontaneous Resolution Introduction
899
Forme Fruste Bar
902
Authors Perspective
904
References
906
Subject Index
907
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