A Medieval Italian Commune: Siena Under the Nine, 1287-1355
University of California Press, Jan 1, 1981 - Siena - 327 pages
"Siena rivaled Florence in the arts throughout the 13th and 14th centuries: the important late medieval painter Duccio (1253?1319) was a Sienese, but worked across the peninsula, and the mural of "Good Government" by Ambrogio Lorenzetti in the Palazzo Pubblico, or town hall, is a magnificent example of late-Medieval/early Renaissance art as well as a representation of the utopia of urban society as conceived during that period. Siena was devastated by the Black Death of 1348, and also suffered from ill-fated financial enterprises. In 1355, with the arrival of Charles IV of Luxembourg in the city, the population rose and suppressed the government of the Nove (Nine), establishing that Dodici (Twelve) nobles assisted by a council with a popular majority. This was also short-lived, being replaced by the Quindici (Fifteen) reformers in 1385, the Dieci (Ten, 1386?1387), Undici (Eleven, 1388?1398) and Twelve Priors (1398?1399) who, in the end, gave the city's seigniory to Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan in order to defend it from the Florentine expansionism."--Wikipedia.
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